QFD Symposium Transactions
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The 12th Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-12-5)
Aerospace / Airline Industry 2000
Measuring Competitiveness in Service Design; Decisions based on Customer's Needs by Thomas Fehlmann, Ph.D., Euro Project Office AG, IT Quality Group, Switzerland
Fast decision making is key in today's markets, especially in the airlines industry. QFD, in conjunction with New Lanchester Strategy, provides a means to make difficult decisions right, in very short time. This approach has brought Swissair a means for continuous measurements and focused improvements with a clear and unambiguous metric and is now part of the regular marketing research process.
The Collaborative Innovation (CI) Process by Larry Zeidner, Ph.D. and Ralph Wood, Ph.D. of United Technologies Research Center, USA
The Collaborative Innovation process, developed at United Technologies Research Center, is an integrated collection of best-practice design methods (enhanced and simplified QFD and TRIZ) to support Integrated Product Development teams during conceptual design. Over the past 3 years, it has been applied to a wide range of UTC innovation efforts, enabling an IPD team to: a) focus their innovation efforts on opportunities of the greatest stakeholder value potential, b) use stakeholder value to guide concept evaluation and selection, and c) create a development plan that will reduce risk as quickly as possible.
Enlarging QFD Methodology to Include Forecasts of Market Share and Profit by Harry E. Cook, Head, Department of General Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.
Taylors expansion in market segment provides a rigorous phenomenological basis for making value versus cost trade-offs for new product development and yields a straightforward marketing research method for assessing the value of proposed product improvements. Using the first stage of QFD, a list of customer needs are identified and converted into product system attributes. Value curves for key system level attributes are used with cost estimates to make trade-off assessments and also to determine Taguchi's "cost of inferior quality." Through a variety of automotive and construction equipment applications, the paper reviews how well they achieved both variable cost and value needed to assure the bottom-line metrics of market share and profit.
Improving the Nissan "Crew" with Reverse QFD by Noriharu Kaneko, Japan
The necessity to continue improving quality of a newly development product through QFD will be illustrated by Nissan Taxi Cab "Crew" customer satisfaction survey example. Based on market surveys conducted after the release of a new model, this paper suggests future improvements needed in the next model and a job flow to achieve them.
An Application of QFD to the Shop Floor Daily Routine Management by Leonardo Pereira Santiago, Flávio de Aguiar Araújo, Lin Chih Cheng, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil
How QFD was used for assuring the quality of shop floor management in the daily routine of a manufacturing firm. Shows how QFD can help the shop floor solve the negative voice of customer by selecting the main working place of the manufacturing process.
Investigation and Research Concerning the Integration of TQM and ISO9000/14000/Responsible Care by Masao Sukuya, Dainippon Ink & Chemical Inc., Yusuke Ito, Naoki Tanaka, Yasutaka Kato and Kozo Koura, Asahi University, Japan
Integration of quality management (ISO 9000), environment management (ISO 14000), environment, safety and healthy management (Responsible Care: RC) and TQM through application of cross-functional management was tried and proved effective in this chemical industry research, conducted in cooperation with the Kashima Plant of the Dainippon Ink & Chemicals Inc, a certified ISO 9000/14000 organization which strives for RC.
Consumer Products 2000
A Study of Structure of Quality Contribution Degree in Customer Satisfaction by Michiteru Ono, Tamagawa University, Japan; Noriyuki Neil Takeuchi, Integrated Quality Dynamics, Inc., USA
This paper presents a more efficient ways to improve customer satisfaction through use of QFD, by identifying attractive quality in satisfied factors, setting moderate quality in dissatisfied factors, and determining low-cost factors. Satisfied and dissatisfied factors are identified; their relationship and influence are analyzed through Factor Analysis and Covariance Structure Analysis for better product development process.
Continuous QFD - Employing QFD in Case of Fuzzy Development Tasks by Georg Herzwurm, Sixten Schockert, University of Cologne, Business Computing, Germany
When customer requirements are not well-defined and technologies are changing fast, traditional waterfall QFD is inappropriate for product development. Continuous QFD is a method to deal with this situation. This paper describes characteristics of unclear development tasks, translates them into QFD terminology and outlines consequences for the design of Continuous QFD projects. A case study on web-site development applying Continuous QFD will be presented.
Application of QFD to Developing Education Products for Northern Australia Beef Producers by Shane Blakeley, Rural Production Systems Pty Ltd, Australia; Mick Quirk, John Bertram, and Felicity McIntosh of Queensland Beef Industry Institute, Australia; Bob Hunt, Macquarie University, Australia
In two separate projects, Meat and Livestock Australia and the Queensland Beef Industry Institute used QFD to determine the education needs of beef producers with regards to beef cattle nutrition and to grazing land management. The projects provide insights into issues critical to the success of North Australian beef production enterprises. These insights have enabled the organizations to design and deliver education products to enhance skills and consequently profitability of those producers.
Electronics, Computers & Telecommunications 2000
Inspection and Control of Raw Materials Applied to Electronic Ceramics Through the Quality Chart by J.C.S. Dias and P.A. Cauchick Miguel, Methodist University of Piracicaba, Brazil.
This paper reports a study of raw material inspection by presenting a methodology to relate technical and managerial requirements. A quality chart has been developed relating technical and ISO 9001:2000 requirements and giving the level of importance of the relationships. This analysis identifies which ISO 9001 requirements have more impact on job functions.
Gemba Research in the Japanese Cellular Phone Market by Eric Ronney and Peter Olfe, Nokia Mobile Phones, UK
The advantages for a mobile phone company of doing research in the Gemba are first explored. The paper then describes a research project that was carried out in Japan and describes how the research was designed to try to overcome the potential barriers posed by customer culture in order to obtain the maximum benefit from the research.
Healthcare, Medical Products, Pharmaceuticals 2000
Applying QFD in a Hospital Setting: A Study of Medical Quality by Dr. Yoji Akao and H. Fujimoto, Asahi University, Japan.
The application of QFD in service industries concerns itself not only with quality as valued by the customer, but must also consider quality of the service operations themselves. Similarly, a medical facility must consider both the societal role of the hospital and the actions necessary to assure the health of the patient. This paper will demonstrate that metrics for clinical staff quality can be incorporated in the various QFD charts to clarify, evaluate, and manage medical quality.
Use of QFD to Develop Sales in a Medical Materials Market by Fatih Yenginol, Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Business, Turkey
A multinational medical materials producer, the major player in its market, is seeking ways to develop its sales. The sales department of the company has determined the gaps in the market. In this way, the company is going to be able to fill in these gaps with the help of Quality Function Deployment process.
Introduction of QFD Method to Our Original Medical Quality Improvement (MQI) Activity in Nerima General Hospital by T. Takahara, M.D., Dept of Surgery, S. Iida, M.D., President, and M. Fujimori of Nerima General Hospital, Japan
Since 1996, Nerima General Hospital has been executing their own Medical Quality Improvement (MQI) Process to improve quality and function of medical care. QFD and FMEA are a part of this year's declared focus. This paper presents introduction of QFD to our MQI activities which resulted in good outcome in both external and internal customer demands.
Software Quality Improvement by Quality Function Deployment by Yen-Fang Chu, Graduate School of Resource Management, National Defense Management College; Huey-Der Chu, Department of Information Management; Shan-Fa Wang, Taiwan, ROC
The cost of quality refers to the cost incurred due to compliance and non-compliance to requirements. Considering this imbalance among the cost of quality, this paper introduces Quality Function Deployment (QFD) into the Information System Planning to decrease the failure cost and improve the quality of the software development process.
QFD and RequisitePro by Stuart Lesley, SiloSmashers, USA
QFD is a powerful method for bringing the voice of the customer to the entire organization. We have developed a way to physically link the results of QFD into the beginning of the design process. This method not only preserves the QFD effort, but also provides traceability throughout the solutions design and development life cycle.
Software QFD by Richard Zultner, ZULTNER & Co., USA
The application of QFD to software development requires a combination of understanding users, project management, and software development tools to assure that by concentrating our limited resources on those aspects relating to the most important needs of the customer, we can deliver more value to the customer than our competitors
Training and Consulting 2000
Implementing TQManagement in a Multiculture Ambience by Dr. Tarik Sulimani, VP, TQM & HR, Advanced Electronics Co.; Dr. Nasreen Al-Dossary, Assistant Manager, Saudi American Bank, Saudi Arabia
Implementing TQM in developing nations with heavy reliance on foreign manpower is a challenge. It is a unique experience to maintain harmony among heterogeneous workers and experts from different continents, values and backgrounds. This paper points out cross-cultural sensitivities, highlights obstacles organizations may face and how to overcome cultural barriers. It describes the TQMization approach and implementation measures that can take place based on a study conducted in Saudi Arabia.
A Review of Applied Human Factors Techniques for Product Designers in Identifying the Voice of the Customer by Chee Weng Khong, Centre for Collaborative Multimedia, Multimedia University, CyberJaya, Malaysia
This paper addresses the human factors methods or techniques applied by designers throughout the product development process in identifying and to elicit customer trends and preferences, and map social and technological directions. A simple matrix diagram is proposed to support and aid the designer's awareness of appropriate human factors techniques to be applied.
General Model of Continuous Improvement Programs: Creating Fractal Organizations by Francisco Tamayo-Enríquez, Axa Yazaki, Mexico
Continuous Improvement Programs are generally models of organization and interaction between people with some emergent and some intended results. Recently, fractal models are achieving success in modeling complex natural phenomena. If organizational dynamics are natural phenomena, there is the possibility of having a Generalized Model of Continuous Improvement Programs based on a fractal model. This will lead to Fractal Organizations through deployments, such as QFD and Policy Management, able to preserve the appropriate form and complexity at all different levels.
Minimum Information Loss Evaluations for QFD by Ed Dean, DFV Group, USA
QFD has come under attack because of the means used for evaluation. Research has shown that individual preferences are not preserved by typical joint evaluation methods and has associated preference retention with information retention. This paper defines a generalized information for preferences, obtains the minimum information loss joint preference, and compares this approach in a QFD example with an evaluation approach recommended by voting research.
QFD is a Catalyst, not a Process; A New Way to Look at QFD by D. Lyman, Vie wPoint & Understanding Enhancement., USA
A new way to look at QFD, not as a process by itself, but as a catalyst to be applied to other processes. When QFD is applied to other processes, they are changed; old processes become more customer focused and proactive. We will look at the types of processes you can mix with QFD, what results and how it can even improve a bad process. We will look at the elements of QFD as they mix with the elements of other processes in many disciplines and show that there is no one right way to do QFD.
General Industry / Service 2000
Using the Gemba to Improve the Usefulness of FMEA by John Te rninko, Responsible Management, Inc., USA
Using the different perspectives of a system provides different perspectives when visiting the Gemba. A system exists in time, space and relationships. A system's goal is to use its properties and functions to satisfy some need of its environment. Understanding these perspectives in the Gemba will yield a profound improvement on the usefulness of the associated FMEA. All potential failure modes and root causes often missed will be identified.
Hoshin and Strategic QFD Organizations: Where are they now? by Ro bert A H unt, Macquarie University, Australia
This paper reports on two organizations with more than three years applying Hoshin and QFD principles to their strategic transformation system (STS) and/or their offer innovation system (OIS).
The Quality Concert: A Multiple-Parameter Matrix Analysis by Jack ReVelle, ReVelle Solutions, LLC, USA
Several concepts, all QFD-related, are analyzed using a Y-shaped, multi-parameter matrix to determine the extent of their interrelationships. These concepts are the Kano Model and the Quality Concert composed of two parts, the Quality Quartet and the Quality Chorus. The Quality Quartet has four voices: that of the customer, engineer, manager, and the process. The Quality Chorus has three voices: that of society, government, and environment. The resulting model insures awareness of important factors in, around and about the marketplace.
The Universal Method for Technology Forecast: Does the Panacea Exist? by Iouri Belski and Vladimir Shapiro of Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia.
This paper analyses the dependence of methodologies of forecasting on the requirements of the designer. The variety of outcomes of a process of forecasting is considered: from prediction of future characteristics of system elements to potential scenarios of systems and super-systems of the future.
Strategic Product Family Development by Extending the House of Quality by Juergen Hoffmann, Fraunhofer Technology Development Group, Germany
The extended House of Quality does not use single specifications to define product families - instead specification classes are formed. These specification classes encompass the area within which the specifications for all the products in the product family are contained. Experience has shown that it makes sense to form three specification classes, and combine these with factors such as cost and competitive comparisons for defining the specifications for product families from a strategic market perspective.
Customer and market input for product program development by Knut Aasland, Detlef Blankenburg and Jarl Reitan, SINTEF Industrial Management, Norway
One crucial question when developing product programs is: Which models and variants do we really need? To what degree can an attractive product make variation less necessary? To answer this, a deep understanding of customers and their behavior and decision patterns is important. Since this is not what designers and project managers in industry typically excel at, methods and tools are necessary.
QFD 2000: Integrating Supporting Methodologies into Quality Function Deployment by Glenn Mazur, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd and QFD Institute, USA
Competitiveness in the new millennium may belong more to those who can integrate a multitude of disciplines into a system, rather than to those who expect a single tool to do it all. The House of Quality is really more of a "great room" to which various "outbuildings" and other structures must connect. This paper shows where well-known quality and other tools such as Consumer Encounters, New Lanchester Strategy, Kansei Engineering, Theory of Constraints, TRIZ, Voice of Customer Analysis, FMEA, SPC, and other methods can be integrated into the New Product Development Process.
Leveraging TRIZ to Combine Ideas into Implementable Concepts by Dana Clarke, Ideation International, Inc. USA
Enhance the value of ideas via the integration of QFD and TRIZ to create “super concepts.” TRIZ offers newly-developed techniques for combining complementary or competing ideas, thereby raising the effectiveness of the QFD process to meet and exceed customer expectations.
QFD with an Attitude! - "Obsolete your products so your competitors can't"! by David Verd uyn, C 2 C So lutions, USA
Product Development starts and ends with the customer, however, the heart of the development process must involve great technical discipline, creativity, and speed to ensure an innovative response that guarantees your customers loyalty & attracts your competitor's clientele. This paper illustrates how QFD must incorporate leading innovation strategies to attain or maintain leadership.
The 11th Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-11-7)
Variability Reduction: A Common Ground for Integration of Advanced Quality Tools and Processes by David Novick, Technical Advisor Electronic Systems & Missile Defense, The Boeing Company
A strong Variability Reduction (VR) plan is central to any organizational Continuous Quality or Process Improvement (CQI/CPI) effort. Without such a plan sorely needed resources, people and budget, are applied in the wrong place and at the wrong time. A "Total Approach" may be fashioned to guide planning, developing and managing such a program using a toolkit developed and selected from Comprehensive QFD (QD and QFD), Taguchi Methods (Robust Design and Loss Function), Theory of Constraints (TOC and TP), Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), Statistical Process Control (Shewhart's SPC) and Kaizen. This paper presents how this author used these toolkits to establish a Variability Reduction Plan and Pathway.
The Use of QFD for Architectural Briefing & Design by Dirk Conradie, Project Leader & Kirsten Kusel, Research Architect Division of Building Technology, CSIR, South Africa
A unique fusion of technology in an unprecedented new system promises new possibilities in the complex world of architectural briefing and design. The system enables actual client requirements to be accurately translated by means of a new software system into architectural functions and final design solutions. The application of novel concepts such as QFD-in-depth and breakout methodologies will be illustrated. The paper describes the integration of the new QFD concepts with traditional methodologies from the domains of QFD and Systems Engineering and Concurrent Engineering within a software environment.
QFD for Manufacturing Technology Assessment by Edward Vinarcik, Engineer, Visteon Powertrain Control Systems, USA
Choosing a manufacturing technology is difficult. Customer needs as well as technology limitations must be understood. This paper presents a case study in which QFD is used as an analysis method for evaluating manufacturing technologies for a specific product, automotive fuel rails. Included is a discussion of customer types and needs related to design, cost, delivery, and timing.
QFD Applications in Brazilian Autoparts Companies by Paulo Cauchick Miguel, P.T.M. deSouza, and C.J. deSouza of Methodist University of Piracicaba / Meritor do Brasil Ltda, Brazil
This paper describes QFD implementation initiatives carried out in two auto parts companies in Brazil. One company produces steel wheels and the other mechanical transmissions. The paper describes the framework and timetable to implement QFD, highlights the reasons for deciding to implement it, and it shows the results achieved so far. Difficulties experienced are also presented as well as the principal benefits.
The Product Development Process: Avoiding Pitfalls to a Successful Implementation by Bob Adams, Magna Seating Systems
Organizations that utilize product and program management have consistently found difficulty in delivering on customer expectations while attempting to balance internal resources. Cost overruns and losses associated with un-recovered engineering changes are symptomatic of a process that doesn't work. Magna Seating Systems embarked on a concerted effort to revitalize the entire operation of delivering products from concept through obsolescence. What resulted is a process that has become world class in execution and achievement of both customer and company goals. This was accomplished by taking the architecture and designing into its basic framework safeguards that avoid common pitfalls that have plagued other companies. Changing the way things occurred and happened at Magna began a cultural revolution in program management and its execution that continues to this day.
QFD in Strategic Planning: An Exploratory Study by Paulo Cauchick Miguel & R.M. Vanalle of Methodist University of Piracicaba, Brazil; A.G. Alves Filho, University of Saõ Carlos, Brazil
This paper examines an exploratory study in which QFD is used for strategic planning formulation. On the basis of corporate strategies obtained in a previous study, QFD matrices are applied to relate business strategies and functional level strategies. The case study is performed in an automotive industry supplier which produces brake systems. A QFD matrix is used to identify the most appropriate functional strategies, including the relationships and correlations.
Consumer-Based™ Performance Benchmarking by Kioumars Paryani and Terry Zalewski of General Motors Corporation GM Truck Group, USA
This paper presents a unique approach to benchmarking and target setting. The paper will not get into the discussion of how to capture, prioritize or translate the voice of the customer. The assumptions are that an accurate translation of customer needs and wants is in place. The theme of the paper centers around a new methodology for setting performance targets for the product characteristics, initially and throughout the lifecycle of the product. Additionally, this methodology will identify areas that need to be technologically developed. This way, technology development takes on a market pull strategy rather than the traditional strategy of developing technology for technology sake. Furthermore, the methodology quantifies the level performance needed by the technology to ultimately exceed customer expectations. Tools utilized in this methodology are derived from established quality engineering practices and tools, such as the Taguchi Quality Loss Function, Quality Function Deployment, Focus Group Methodology in consumer research, and the critical path method (CPM).
Disaster Management 1999
The Application of Augmented QFD to the Evaluation of Emergency Plans by Chakib Kara-Zaitri and S. Al-Daihan, University of Bradford, UK / King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia
A description of an augmented QFD methodology for the evaluation of emergency and crisis management is developed and presented. The methodology identifies those areas of management response which are critical for the correct implementation of emergency plans. The methodology is presented by reference to illustrative examples derived from recent disaster response plans. The methodology is shown to be efficient, flexible and easy to use.
Communications and Media 1999
Contextual Usability, Domestication & QFD by Derek Nicoll, Research Fellow, The University of Edinburgh Management School, UK
QFD works well where there are strong product analogues easily recognized by representative samples of consumer-users. However, what happens if there is a lack of analogues providing the crucial metric? What if there is no easily definable representative sample? This paper considers the importance of context in capturing the voice of the customer, and enhancing it with information on how products domesticate into homes and offices.
Consumer Products 1999
Brand Engineering using Kansei Engineering and QFD by Glenn Mazur, University of Michigan Industrial and Operations Engineering, USA; Jeremy Brochtner, University of Michigan Interdisciplinary Program in Engineering and Industrial Design, USA
Traditional QFD methods have dealt with issues such as "appearance" for many years. But another, less known tool, kansei engineering is more suited for the task of translating "brand" into real product differentiators. Born in Japan like QFD, kansei engineering is the brainchild of Mituso Nagamachi, a leading ergonomist and quality professional. This paper will integrate kansei engineering with brand management, industrial design, QFD, and other quality tools to yield a more robust approach that can bring together the marketing, art, and engineering professions.
Education / Library Sciences 1999
The Application of QFD Principles to Student Learning using a Group Decision Support System in School Education by Wilhelmina Hunt, Reading Insight, Australia
This paper describes how through the use of a group decision support system customer in schools (students) apply QFD principles to the their learning. The author believes the students are able to develop a product that meets or exceeds their needs or wants. Teachers can use this system to do long term strategy to satisfy the goals of their customers.
Solving Problems with Method of the Ideal Result (MIR) by Iouri Belski, RMIT University, Australia
This paper introduces an application of the TRIZ-based Method of the Ideal Result (MIR) to service. This paper concentrates on a general MIR methodology, its relation with TRIZ and QFD. MIR application in finding ways of improvement of university student's satisfaction is presented as an example.
Improving the Scales Used in AHP for QFD by Frank Moisiadis, Centre for Advanced Systems Engineering, Macquarie University, Australia
The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is widely used in QFD for prioritizing stakeholders, their needs, competitors, and other data. Studies done in the field of Library Sciences and MBA education have revealed certain weaknesses in Dr. Saaty’s 9-point scale, since many psychologists believe people do not mentally perceive attitudes as a single point, but rather as a range of acceptable values. Findings and alternatives will be presented.
Electronics, Computers, and Telecommunications 1999
Interpretation of VOC with Concept of Quality in Multi-Levels: An Enhancement for QFD for Innovation by Chong Pui-yik, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
With too much change and newness of attributes, it is hard to thoroughly implement QFD for innovation. A view is raised in this paper that the concept of quality in multi-levels, Owen’s Quality Pyramid Model, can be used to establish the usable information of desired quality attributes as enhancement to turn the vibration of voice of customer (VoC) into certain manageable newness. Thus the context of QFD for product innovation can be extended.
Deploying Corporate Vision using a Structured Methodology by Steve Seeman and Alan Leeds of EFData, USA
Challenged by a newly appointed CEO to improve operating cost and increase customer satisfaction, California Microwave embarked on three initiatives to achieve quantum improvements toward world class operating levels. A customized software program was developed to access customers opinions. Responses from customers resulted in identifying and forming teams to address the top three attributes. Results included focus on real customer needs, reduced non-value added activities, improved quality, and shorter cycle times.
Interface of Lanchester Strategy & QFD by John Schuler, Lanchester Press, USA
Brief overview of Lanchester Strategy, Lanchester Equations, Lanchester's principle of concentration, Koopmans global warfare and development in Japan of total marketing warfare. Significance of the Japanese development in application to other fields of activity, military, marketing, politics and understanding of individual achievements - the "performance guru model." Advances over the popular "Sun-Tu" model of marketing. Explanations of gaps in popular texts such as the Moore series on product introduction. Cases discussed include HP-Xerox-Canon in a fight over the copier market and mergers and acquisitions in the CMP sector of the semiconductor market.
Entertainment Industry 1999
Jurassic QFD by Andrew Bolt, MD Robotics, USA; Glenn Mazur, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd., USA
Universal Studios Florida has just opened its Jurassic Park amusement park. One of the highlights is the Triceratops Encounter, a "live" animatronic interactive dinosaur "petting zoo." The animatronics were built by the company that makes the robot arm for the Space Shuttle, and you can imagine the difficulty in moving from that industry to an amusement attraction. QFD allowed them to move from the original concept story boards to system and component development to operator instructions for the on site "attendant." Hear a gemba visit story only QFD could have created. Further, significant time and cost savings were achieved due the focus that QFD brings. One visitor called this "totally convincing... it flinches, breathes, snorts, drools, moves, blinks just like it were alive." You won't believe what other body functions it does! We hope to have a video of the design, build, and execution process.
General Industry 1999
The Politics and Partisanship of VOC by M. Larry Shillito, USA
Next generation strategic thinking will be concerned with, "which customers will get us into the future?" and "How will we excite them?" Acquiring processing and deploying Voice of the Customer (VOC) will be paramount to the success of an enterprise. The success of a VOC project is enhanced if organizational, political and behavioral aspects of the project are addressed early. This paper will discuss the company-customer balance, VOC principles, vertical VOC, evolutionary/revolutionary VOC, customer chains, supply-demand model of VOC, VOC fit to the commercialization process, and acid test questions for initiating a VOC study.
QFD as a Corporate Memory Structure by Greald Henstra, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
Parallel to creating products the R&D process results in knowledge. Usually a great deal of this knowledge remains tacit. Tacit knowledge obviously is a concealed source of competitive advantage. To reveal their findings employees need a means of communication. QFD will be suggested to serve as a communication structure, incidentally upgrading its role within the play of product development.
Hoshin Planning, QFD & TQM by Robert Hunt, Macquarie University, Australia
QFD, Hoshin Kanri and related methodologies are often considered to be at the opposite end of the spectrum from traditional Management By Objectives approaches. From field analysis of 47 organizations, this paper develops a diagnostic that positions an organization’s strategic planning system along this spectrum.
Experiences with the reliability and Validity of the Kano Method: Comparison to Alternate Forms of Classification of Product Requirements by Elmar Saurwein, University of Innsbruck, Austria
Reliability and validity of the Kano Model have not yet been tested thoroughly. This paper tries to examine the reliability of test-retest, alternate forms and stability of interpretation. Furthermore concurrent, predictive and convergent validity were tested. Other methods of classification were tested, too. The results are supportive for the Kano model.
Making QFD Efficient by Robert Hale s, Proaction Development, USA
This paper presents the sometimes-heretical lessons that the author learned by applying QFD over nine years.
Industrial Products and Heavy Industry 1999
Customer Chart: An Efficient and Effective Way for Structuring Customer Needs by Juergen Hoffmann, Fraunhofer Technology Development Group, Germany
Since customer needs are the vital input for any QFD process Fraunhofer TEG has developed a new promising method for structuring customer groups and their needs. Combining elements of the Akao with the well-known ASI approach a new effective and efficient way for dealing with diverse customer needs of different target groups is achieved.
Application of QFD in Conjunction with the Goal Function Modeling within the Automation Systems Industry by Prof. Tilo Pfeifer and Dipl.-Ing Rolf Reinecke of Aachen University of Technology, Germany
This approach changes the way automation systems are engineered with the specific purpose of reducing cost and enhancing quality of the delivered systems, thus, leading to excellent customer satisfaction. This paper presents a combined customer and functional oriented methodology based on QFD and Goal Function Modeling (GFM) as well as the first results of application on real life automation projects.
Socially Responsible QFD by John Terninko, Responsible Management, USA
Centuries ago, the Seneca Nation of northeastern North America made decisions by considering the consequences for the seventh unborn generation of their people. It is time to apply this ancient wisdom to our own times with the aid of 21st Century tools like QFD and TRIZ. By looking at the needs of the super-system in which a product, service or software resides – the super Gemba, so to speak – the probability of future environmental and health disasters will be minimized. A combined methodology using both QFD and TRIZ is proposed to achieve this higher level perspective.
Using Soft Systems to Identify and Diffuse Cross Functional Conflicts by Jim McMahon, Fresh Venture Limited, UK
Should the marketers dictate requirements to the manufacturing function, or should operations limit what can be brought to the market? Marketing may give undertakings to customers that operations just cannot accommodate. These undertakings may include lead times and delivery quantities incompatible with the manufacturing system. There exists therefore the potential for conflict. The successful resolution of these conflicts is important for the long and short-term success of organizations.
Basic Elements of QFD as Key Factors in Life Cycle Engineering by Christiane Rauch-Geelhaar and Frank Zeihsel of Institute of Manufacturing Engineering and Production Management University of Kaiserslautern, Germany
Although QFD evidently is a very good method for transforming ambiguous customer demands into concrete measures for product and processes there are still problems with its usage. Success strongly depends on flexible application of the most important elements of QFD. These are key factors for several kinds of requirement transformations not only in product development but also in the whole product life cycle. In this article the basic elements of QFD, their successful application in industrial practice as well as useful enhancements are described.
Aligning the IT Framework to Corporate Strategy by Thomas Fehlmann, IT Quality Group, Switzerland
New Lanchester strategy and QFD are used in an integrated approach to define standards for the IT framework in large organizations. The standardization approach is based on competitive advantage, user needs, security policy and technology selection. We measure productivity gains using an enhanced Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) – model in medium to large distribution centers to retail businesses and in public administration.
Risk-based Deployment of Standard Software Rollout Processes by Georg Herzwurm, Ph.D., University of Cologne, QFD Institut Deutschland e. V.; Wolfram Pietsch, Ph.D., ExperTeam GmbH, QFD Institut Deutschland e. V. Germany
QFD is employed to the tailoring of rollout processes. The risk of project failure is evaluated by means of a set of risk factors. The result is used to select the tasks that address the risk properly, leading to an efficient rollout process.
Defining Customer Needs for Brand New Products by Richard Zultner, Zultner & Company, USA
Is it useful to have an approach for products the customer has never seen before (as opposed to model upgrades)? This paper will review the existing approaches in QFD for brand new products, and discuss the Theory of Constraints "Snowflake" and "3 Clouds" methods for finding the customer's core problem, and core conflict, respectively. This will show the synergy between TOC and QFD as well (tweaking the deal vs. tweaking the details).
Training and Consulting 1999
How to Measure the Performance of the Overall Deployment Process by Fatih Yenginol and Ali Sen of Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey
Various forms of deployment processes are being used to solve specific problems in different situations. At the end of these applications, a performance measurement of the overall deployment process has to be made. Thus, a backward revision deployment may be realized. With this paper; a model is proposed for performance measurement and revision of the overall deployment process.
A Statistical Approach to SQC Target-Setting by Kaushik Ghosh and Lynnette Blaney, Battelle Memorial Institute
The basic premise of the House of Quality is an implied cause and effect between the Substitute Quality Characteristics and customer satisfaction. Little is usually done to verify this impact mathematically. As a result, target setting is very subjective in nature and may be of very limited value. We present a statistical model for use in target setting and an alternative calculation for Technical Importance based on "satisfaction-sensitivities."
Training and Instructional Techniques for Teaching QFD by K Becker,USA
At some point in a QFD practitioner's life, he or she will be asked to conduct a class in QFD. This presentation will cover planning for training and instructional techniques based both on classical learning theories (Blooms Taxonomy) and on new ideas to increase the effectiveness of materials and the instructor's ability to build group rapport.
Virtual QFD; Better Comprehensive QFD Training by D. L yman, Viewpoint & Understanding Enhancement, USA
This paper discusses the different options for teaching Comprehensive QFD, looking at the primary three axes of Depth, Time, and Applicability. These three axes give eight different scenarios for instruction.
TRIZ/Medical Device 1999
Using TRIZ as a Creative Process for Breaking Patterns by Tore Wiik, Sintef, Norway
Two successful cases in which TRIZ has been used extensively are discussed. Triz has first been used as a tool to stimulate group creativity so that a large number of alternatives have been generated. Then the methodology has been used as a tool to find actual solutions using the classical TRIZ tools for sterilizing equipment for drugs and next generation cutting tool holders.
The 10th Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-10-9)
The Synergistic Alliance of Systems Engineering and QFD by John M. Marzec of Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power - Boeing North America, USA
Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power, a business unit of Boeing North American, has developed a Systems Engineering Process. QFD has been identified as a key process within that discipline. This paper will primarily focus on the role of QFD in the Requirements Management aspect of Systems Engineering. The presentation will include a case study involving a transfer orbit propulsion system.
QFD in Aerospace Applications: A Training Exercise by Jack Barke of the Information, Space and Defense Systems, The Boeing Company, USA
This paper explains a teaching exercise that introduces one to the mechanics of QFD. The basis of the exercise is an actual advertisement and specification for a "heavier-than-air flying machine" put out by the Army Signal Corps in 1908. Twelve exercises are covered that walk the reader through the 4 ASI matrices and also the Pugh Concept matrix.
[Poster Paper] Method for Optimizing Resources Allocation by James Afarin of NASA Lewis Research Center, USA
This is a nonlinear model which represents a structured approach to make capital investment decisions based on the priorities of the organization and the quality of outputs. This procedure was applied to a multidivisional organization for the proof of the concept at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio.
Application of Quality Functional Deployment to Automotive Fuel System Components by Edward Vinarcik, Visteon - Powertrain Control Systems Division, USA
With most products, consumers define quality. Complex products, however, contain components which often are never thought about by consumers. At the component level, quality must be defined internally. The purpose of this paper is to apply QFD to an automotive component, specifically a fuel rail. Included is a discussion of needs for internal customers related to design, delivery, and timing. Dynamic Characteristics / QFD by Shin Taguchi of the American Supplier Institute. The integration of Taguchi Design of Experiments and Quality Function Deployment.
QFD Methodology and its Application in an Automotive Industry Supplier by P. A. Cauchick Miguel, N. C. Maestrelli, and L. G. Lopes, Jr. of Methodist University of Pircicaba / Meritor do Brasil Ltda., Brazil
This paper presents a work on QFD carried out in an auto parts industry in Brazil. It describes the implementation steps as well as some of the achievements. This work also outlines the relation of QFD with aspects of QS 9000 certification. Finally, it points out the principal benefits of QFD application.
Concept Development 1998
Consumer Encounters and Idea Development and Concept Optimization by Brian Barton and Cathy Rings of Rubbermaid, USA; Glenn H. Mazur of Japan Business Consultants, Ltd., USA
Getting better products faster to customers is critical to the financial success of a company. Traditional approaches to ideation and concept development and optimization begin with product ideas developed internally and then validated through consumer screening and concept testing. By observing consumers in the process of living their lives in their own homes, a deeper understanding of their needs can more accurately drive the ideation process, leading to a better acceptance of concepts in the screening process, more accurate consumer testing, and better volumetric and profit forecasting. This paper reports on Rubbermaid's Consumer Encounter Form which was designed to facilitate a brief 2-hour encounter, prioritize product categories and within those, prioritize consumer needs based on the Voice of the Customer, and lead to product ideas. This form flows directly into our Concept Testing Board for use in the consumer concept tests.
Cost Deployment 1998
Cost Deployment to Improve Customer Satisfaction and to Reduce Product Cost by Gerd Streckfuss, Institut fnr QualitStsmanagement, and Dr. Weigang, Germany
During QFD sessions, companies in "high-cost" countries request from this method not only to address customers requirements but also to consider the cost issues. Using comprehensive QFD Deployment and Target Costing, the results of case studies are documented and evaluated. Special considerations: 1. There is a relationship between customer requirements and the actual cost. 2. The Value Graph can be used to start the improvement path. 3. This improvement path is documented in various HOQ's, but some important rules must be watched.
Computer & Software 1998
Innovative Product Planning and Development Process: Super Design Technology (SDT) by Kunio Noguchi, Keisuke Nomura, Yuji Kyoya, and Yoshifumi Ueda of Toshiba Systems & Software Research Laboratories, Japan
The development of an advanced product design process dubbed the Super Design Technology to achieve "product on demand" is underway at Toshiba. We have added QFD to this new method in the form of a database that we can quickly access critical information which is often beyond the scope of typical QFD.
Software Availability Reporting System by Ann Burtner, Hughes Aircraft, USA
This paper investigates the establishment of an availability reporting system using QFD as a tool to translate "the Voice of the Customer" (VOC) into a product design. The goal of this study is to develop a software reporting product that customers and the computer vendor may easily view for any anomalies, problem trends, and cyclic outages. This report focuses on just one portion of the final product which is the output report the customers view. This report will then become a template for the remainder of the project. The methods used with QFD are VOC, DOE, and SPC.
Using QFD for Computer Aided Design Software Selection by John Chapdelaine and Linda Coveney of The Wiremold Company, USA
In 1990, Wiremold transitioned to a JIT manufacturing process. In addition, Wiremold had institutionalized Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as its product development methodology. In 1997, Wiremold recognized that its current Computer Aided Design (CAD) system would not meet the needs for future product development. This paper discusses the use of the QFD process to hear the "voice of the customer" for selecting a new CAD system. It details the process of differentiating and weighting the various customers and the methods for collecting data through surveys. Also discussed are the introduction of decision analysis tools into the process, the final results obtained from technical benchmark data, and lessons learned.
[Poster Paper] Business System Analysis by J. Craig, Thomas F. Tee, Business Effectiveness, L.L.C., USA
Business Functions (How) and the Products and Services Processes (What) of a business are defined and correlated by a team of subject matter experts and facilitated by the authors' company.
Using QFD to Research the Demanded Quality of Students for Lectures by Kozo Koura of Asahi University, Japan
This research is a case study of analysis of "opinionaires" for lecture production control using QFD. The voice of the students was translated into demanded quality deployment and measures deployment was developed from teacher experiments. A quality chart combines both deployments. Importance and weights of planned and designed quality were calculated and a Pareto Analysis implemented.
Using Service Blueprinting and Quality Function Deployment in Restructuring Educational Service Processes by Klaes Eringa, Ph.D., The Christelijke Hogeschool Noord-Nederland; Isolde L. J. Boer, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen Faculty of Business Administration, The Netherlands
The Christelijke Hogeschool Noord-Nederland has launched a TQM project aiming to restructure educational processes tailored to students’ needs. Service Blueprinting maps both the students’ learning process and supporting organizational processes. QFD translates students’ needs into service process specifications, emphasizing the service encounters. The integration of QFD and Service Blueprinting attempts to improve the student perceived quality of service processes.
[Poster Paper] QFD in Education: An Instructional Case by P. A. Cauchick Miguel, Ph.D., and A. Weidmann, Ph.D. of Methodist University of Pircicaba / SKF GmbH, Brazil
This case study presents a simple case which has been used for both undergraduate and post-graduate engineering courses as well as special industrial training courses. The paper shows the feedback from the participants in some of those courses.
A Hospital-Based Service Example of QFD by Edward Chaplin, M. D., Medical Director of Continental Rehabilitation Hospital of San Diego, USA
This paper describes a project to incorporate a customer-focus in a rehabilitation hospital service that provides multi-disciplinary evaluations of complex and/or catastrophic injuries. The service is low in volume, complex, provider-intensive and involves multiple business entities (suppliers). Included in this presentation are: (1) Classic QFD - Customer Deployment, capturing the Voice of the Customer, Quality Deployment, Functional Deployment, Reliability Deployment, New Process and Task Deployment. (2) An example of using reinforcing (positive) feedback to self-organize and self-regulate the management of provider commitments which, in turn, enhanced the effectiveness, reliability and robustness of a deployed process. (3) An example where the use of the concepts from ARIZ broke through apparent incompatibilities between demanded qualities of the injured person and the insurance regulations.
House of Quality 1998
An Intelligent House of Quality by Xiaoqing Frank Liu, University of Missouri-Rolla, USA
The House of Quality (HoQ) is an important and successful tool in QFD. However, manual development of a HoQ is usually time-consuming and error-prone. We have been developing an intelligent HoQ to relieve users of all calculations involved in developing HoQs manually, detect implicit trade-off and impact relationships and maintain their consistency based on fuzzy logic, and enable automatic archival and management of HoQs based on a database system. In addition, it will not impose any restriction on the way the HoQ is currently used.
Fast QFD: First House of Quality in Half the Time by Mark Farrell of Nortel, Northern Telecom Limited, Canada
A common reason for not using QFD is it takes too long. We have developed a method that completes the first House of Quality in half the usual time. We did this by defining two teams, one dedicated to defining customer needs and another dedicated to defining product characteristics. The first house of quality was completed in half the usual time because both customer needs and the product characteristics were defined simultaneously.
Environmental Management System on ISO-14000 Combined with QFD by Yoji Akao, Ph.D. and Tetsuya Hayazaki, Asahi University Graduate School of Business Adminisration, Japan
ISO-14000 is combined with QFD in order to build a better environmental management system. The paper is based on a case study of a construction company with a focus on environmental issues. Environmental requirements were developed through construction work image deployment and combined in a matrix with critical operational functions involving the installation of communication lines, which were then deployed to environmental quality assurance.
Kano Model 1998
Automated Kano Model Implementation by Kaushik Ghosh, Sanjay R. Mawalkar and Lynnette Blaney of the Battelle Institute
Automation of some tasks involved in using tools like QFD and the Kano model for new product development have contributed to their popularity in recent years. This paper presents a software application that allows for the prioritization of customer requirements by classification into the Kano categories and also allows for subsequent use of the generated data in exercises like QFD.
Medical Device 1998
Using FMEA and QFD to Improve the Design of a Medical Device by Phil Price, Novartis Pharma AG, UK; Ian Ferguson of Ferguson Associates, UK
The Paper shows the steps taken to question Functionality, Cost, and Reliability of a medical device. This involved a multi-disciplined team and subjecting the proposed concept to a detailed Design and Process FMEA. The result brought improvement in mechanical design and patient handling which was supported by an ergonomic appraisal and yielded patient preferences information. These findings were incorporated into a QFD-led project for ensuring an improved medical device with the required horizons of Cost, Performance, and Reliability.
An Application of Quality Function in the Medical Device Industry by Shihab Asfour, Ph.D., Eleftherios Iakovou, Ph.D., and Gilbert Cortez of University of Miami Dept. of Industrial Engineering, USA
Medical devices encompass all articles used in the treatment, prevention and diagnosis of disease. We first present the critical quality characteristics specific to the medical device industry. We then proceed with the presentation of a novel application of QFD and robust design in a real-world case study for the design and development of a medical device. Utilization of QFD and robust design in the development process will supercede the regulatory requirements of developing a safe and effective product. The employment of these techniques further leads to shorter time-to-market along with significant cost savings in R&D, manufacturing and service costs.
Quality Assurance 1998
Using QFD to Establish a Quality Assurance Network by Antonio Carlos Ferreira Gomes, Ilka Vilardo, Marcus Vinicius Torres, Murilo Pirozzi, Paulo Roberto Villas, and Renato Machado Vilela of Poligran Polimeros Plasticos Ltda, Brazil; Fundacao Christiano Ottoni, Brazil
This paper will describe the infrequently seen but essential aspect of QFD called the Quality Assurance Network. A real case of applying QFD to Quality Assurance in the polymer package industry will be presented not for redesign of the product or changing the specifications, but to assure the actual specifications improving the process capability (Cpk). This network allowed us to optimize the activities related to the Quality Assurance Function based on the voice of the customer and theirs priorities.
Schedule Deployment 1998
QFD Schedule Deployment: Doing Development Faster with QFD by Richard E. Zultner, Zultner & Co., USA
Schedule Deployment is the QFD subsystem that addresses the schedule directly. With Schedule Deployment, by better management of variation, a shorter development project plan can be made--usually 15-25% shorter--with no increase in risk. An example will be presented for software development.
Information Service for the Manufacturing Industry by Elize Potgieter, Francois Smit, Heleen Snyman, and Johan Strydom of Aerotek, Division of CSIR South Africa; Ben van Vliet of TechnoSolve, South Africa
QFD has been used to upgrade a service, called Infopak, which provides information to the manufacturing industry. Infopak is intended to help firms become more competitive, and to keep them updated on technological trends, topical issues and events in their respective manufacturing domains. Infopak has service, as well as tangible product dimensions. The QFD exercise included a voice-of-the-customer analysis, which circumscribed the definition of information vehicles, packaging and delivery features, functions, and reliability factors.
Strategic Planning Process for Welfare Reform using QFD by Jack B. Re Velle, Ph.D., Aerojet; G. Kevin McDonald, Raytheon Missile Systems Company, USA
In 1997, the United Way of Tucson partnered with Hughes Missile Systems to initiate a community-wide, strategic planning process for welfare reform. The process was designed to develop a "high-level," collaborative response to Federal and state legislative changes. A diverse group representing all sectors of the community met for 3 1/2 days to develop a comprehensive, consensual, prioritized plan. The study introduces a national model for similar community actions.
Strategy, QFD and the Balanced Scorecard by R. Hunt, Ph.D., Macquarie University, Australia
Based on a four year study of 127 applications of QFD principles to innovation of physical products, services, software, processes and strategy in forty-nine companies in the South-west Pacific Rim, this paper examines the development of balanced scorecard performance indicators by these organizations, and looks at the association between their use and corporate success.
QFD Technique for Composite Railway Sleeper by M. R. Joshi of Research and Development Establishment, India
For the development of Railway Sleeper, The Product Development Team coming from three different organizations depended upon the experiences of the team members. Qualitative Requirements stated by the customer were translated into a FRP sleeper product and process characteristics using QFD approach. This work can prove to be a demonstrator for QFD in Product Development Process in India.
TRIZ and QFD 1998
A New Model of the Conceptual Design Process using QFD/FA/TRIZ by Dr. Noel León-Rovira, Humberto Aguayo of Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Mexico
A comprehensive model of the Conceptual Design Process is presented, which integrates QFD, Functional Analysis and TRIZ .It covers how to use TRIZ, a QFD Diagram and Functional Analysis in the conceptual design stage of new products. Examples are shown on how the "roof" of the "House of Quality" may be used as an interface to the Technical Contradictions Table in TRIZ, as contradictory parameters are identified and the design conflicts may be solved based on the Technical Contradictions.
Innovation and Customer Focus: A Medical Marketing Success Study Demonstrating TRIZ and QFD by Ellen Domb, PQR Group, USA; David Corbin, Delcor Interactive International, Inc., USA
This case study illustrates the iterative combination of QFD, TRIZ, and entrepreneurial intuition that have gone into a successful new business venture. Through use of the technical tools of product development with the founders’ intuition and experience, the development and marketing of a unique family of medical products and services has rapidly gone from concept, to prototype, to test market, to nation-wide distribution and sales.
[Poster Paper] Application of TRIZ to Solve a Reliability Problem of a Hard Drive by Zinovy Royzen of TRIZ Consulting, Inc., USA
This paper describes TRIZ approaches to identify the best opportunities for development of products. TRIZ will guide you from understanding of the functions of your product to better utilization of its resources. Using TRIZ at the beginning of your project you will save your time and efforts in your search for the ideal solutions. A case study describes application of TRIZ to a difficult problem.
Value Engineering (VE) 1998
Adding Value to CIDM by M. Larry Shillito, USA
Combining various tools with other best practices allows us to expand the application and effectiveness of each. The enhancement of Customer Integrated Decision Making (CIDM) matrices using Value Engineering (VE) is this example. The enhanced and/or hybrid model can expand team creativity and allow teams to discover new relationships and interactions. This paper examines the use of value indices, value graphs, value targeting, Customer Oriented Product Concepting (COPC), a variant of VE, to enhance the application of CIDM. The result is an improved balance between customer and company needs and the price cost ratio.
Voice of Customer 1998
The Fuzzy Front End of the New Product Development Process by Thomas Hsiang, Ph.D., Universal Foods Corporation.
By now you might have heard many buzz words related to new product development. Examples include Concept Engineering by Shiba, Voice of the Customer, Quality Creation by Kano, Creativity and Innovation, Strategic Quality Planning to name a few. But the bottom line is what are keys to new product success? How can you increase the odds of successful product launches? This presentation will discuss candidly the best new product strategies, particularly focusing on the "fuzzy front end" of the new product development process.
Using Neural Networks to Analyze the Voice of the Customer by Robert L. Brass, Development II, USA
There are three steps involved in the process of creating successful Utility products and service: 1) identify the problems; 2) characterize the value of those problems as perceived by your target market; 3) create a product or service that effectively solves the high priority problems. The key to the process is defining the problems and knowing the priority of those problems in quantitative terms so that they can provide a valid benchmark. The second step, the prioritization and quantification is the main subject of this paper.
General Industry 1998
Managerial Implications for Customer Focused Product Development by Anders Gustafsson, Torbjörn Forsberg, Lars Nilsson and Mattias Elg of Linköping University, Division of Quality Technology and Management, Sweden
Several case studies on Swedish companies with great experience in the use of QFD, including Volvo, SAAB and SKF, have been conducted. This paper draws conclusions about some managerial implications on the use of QFD and draws comparison with results from other studies (Hunt, 1997). The foundation for the paper is two case studies, TA Control and Mölnlycke, two companies with positive effects of using QFD. The paper describes the effects of using QFD and scrutinizes driving forces behind some identified differences, e.g. environmental variables and approach. The result may serve as a guide when implementing QFD.
Selecting the Best Direction to Create the Ideal Product Design by John Terninko of Re sponsible Management, USA
The number of practitioners who go beyond remapping customer information into engineering information by using the House of Quality matrix is slowly increasing. Few try function analysis, reliability deployment or use the negative feedback of the gemba. This paper presents the integration of failure modes and function analysis to identify breakthrough development concepts. Reduction in the failure modes and increases in reliability are natural consequences. AHP prioritizes the projects using the priorities from the House of Quality. The driving force is the ideal final result as defined by the function associated with the most important performance measure in the House of Quality.
The Virtual Corporation and QFD: The Key to Effective Breaking of Boundaries by D. Lyman of Viewpoint Understanding Enhancement, USA
The virtual company is the dynamic alliance with other companies that already possess the resources required to synthesize new productive capabilities very quickly. QFD structures, methods, tools, and systems can provide the basis for meeting the critical need for understanding within and throughout all of the various points of view. We will also discuss the part QFD plays in moving beyond asset management to resource leverage.
Will Your QFD Add Value to Your Operation? How to Find Out by Allan J. Sayle, Allan Sayle Associates, USA
This paper describes how the framework can be assessed to determine whether or not QFD will deliver the results desired and value-adding operations will be obtained. Matters to be examined are described together with their relationship to requirements of business performance, ISO 9000, QS 9000, customer expectations and market conditions.
Value Management: Integrating QFD in the Product Value Deployment Process by Horst R. Schoeler, Schoeler & Partner, USA
This paper shows the framework of Value Management and the systematic combination and involvement of different methods like Value Engineering, QFD, Target Costing. Not a single approach of a method or methodology is responsible for successful products and services. It is necessary to achieve the best process and apply appropriate methods in a holistic view.
Moderated Knowledge Mapping - Forming Breakthrough and Knowledge Transfer! by J. Marconi, Marconi Works International, USA
Moderated Knowledge Mapping is a powerful tool that helps teams create new ideas and form knowledge into accessible organization learning. It has been further developed and codified. Moderated Knowledge Mapping is a highly interactive kinesthetic and visual process with a unique synthesis of: Mind Mapping, Functional Analysis, and German Moderation / Metaplanning techniques.
[Poster Paper 1998] An Intelligent Systems Approach to Quality Function Deployment (QFD) by Vivianne Bouchereau and H. Rowlands, Ph.D. of University of Wales College, UK
This paper will discuss how techniques such as Taguchi Method, Fuzzy Logic, and Artificial Neural Networks could be incorporated within QFD to resolve some of its drawbacks, such as the complexity of the QFD charts, ambiguity in the data collected and determining the interrelationship between processes. These proposed techniques will be adopted to produce an intelligent systems approach to QFD.
[Poster Paper 1998] Quality Planning in the Existence of Multiple Customers: A Scoreboard Design Case by Gülser Köksal of Middle East Technical University and Özlem Fýndýkoglu of Aydýn Software and Electronics Inc., Turkey
In this study, an approach is presented to identify and prioritize multiple customers’ requirements for the design of a scoreboard used in basketball games. Four main customer groups are identified: Audience, referees, bid evaluation committee, and the QFD team. Analytical Hierarchy Process is used to determine weights of customer requirements for each of these groups as well as the final weights.
[Poster Paper 1998] Don’t Bank Just on Methodologies by Detlef Blankenburg, Marit Ranes, and Tore Holmboe Wiik of SINTEF Material Technology & Nordak Innovatikk, Department for Design and Product Development, Norway
The project was planned to give the client company a new product development proces which utilized the Voice of Customer, QFD analyses, Pugh analyses, DFM and concurrent engineering. External industrial designers and usability testing was used to secure both style and user-friendliness. After two years of extensive work the project was stopped due to the dramatic change in both product design and production system. The paper describes the process performed until the final decision was made to stop the project, and to analyze some of the weaknesses of the methods mentioned when not taking into account human factors.
[Poster Paper 1998] Merging Two QFD Models Into One: An Approach Of Application by Luiz C. R. Carpinetti, Ph.D. and Manoel O. C. Peixoto of School of Engineering of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, Brazil
This paper presents an approach to the application of Quality Function Deployment that brings together the models developed by Don Clausing (Enhanced QFD) and Akao. It utilizes some of the tables and matrices proposed by Akao (1990) along with the basic four phases product and process deployment proposed by Clausing (1993). The steps involved in the proposed approach are depicted and justified and a discussion is made on the benefits of the proposed approach.
[Poster Paper 1998] Assigning Importance to Hows: Analysis of Two Competing Methodologies by R. Alan Kemerling of Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. (divison of Johnson & Johnson), USA
This paper and underlying research looks at two different methods (a simple arithmetic calculation and one that uses a weighted Whats importance value) for calculating the importance of Hows in the project. Using Monte Carlo simulation, hundreds of different QFD matrices were developed and the two distribution methods compared for their affect on the resulting priority of key Hows.
[Poster Paper 1998] Using QFD to Develop a Planning Budget Linked to Organizational Objectives by Vito Wasniewski of INFOnetics, USA
Annual budgets and operating strategies are one of the least favored and time-consuming activities performed by directors and department managers. Using QFD can speed this process, but more importantly, drive more co-ordination, communication, and agreement of projects among a management team. This case study presents the process that developed the priorities for over 180 projects, drove rapid agreement among directors, and resulted in a business model.
The 9th Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-09-5)
Blitz QFD 1997
Using the QFD Blitz for Making Better Proposals by Thomas Fehlmann, Ph.D. and Ernest Wallmüller, Ph.D., Unisys (Schweiz) AG, Switzerland
Writing proposals is a critical step for the success of a project involving external suppliers. It initiates the process of synchronizing the value chains between suppliers and customer. This paper describes the adaptation of QFD Blitz to proposal drafting and writing, and the demonstrated results of better competitive position, higher success rate, reduced cycle time for preparation and more understandable proposals.
QFD as a Support System to the Identification of Key Ideas for Technological Changes/Innovation by Antonio Di Zanni of Piaggio Veicoli Europei S.p.A.
This paper describes Piaggio's use of QFD to identifying areas of technological innovation and product concept innovation based on the BLITZ QFD technique. The presentation will describe the results to date including, the definition of a needs tree of European two-wheeler customers, definition of product function tree, identification of priority market segments, and the identification of innovation areas peculiar to market segments.
Using Post-Occupancy Evaluation and QFD Methodologies to Improve Quality in Building Construction by Elizabeth K. A. Londe, Carlos Alberto Nunes Cosenza and Monica Santos Salgado of Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) analyzes the relationship between the built environment and the user behavior. It's primary usage is to evaluate the performance of buildings while QFD provides a systematic approach for the analysis of customer demands. This paper presents how to integrate POE and QFD in a consistent way so when used together they are effective way to listen to the voice of client in building construction.
Consumer Products 1997
Developing an Integrated Model of Designing the Ideal TV for the Consumer through QFD: A Consumer Electronics Case Study by Taylan Özsipahi and Haluk Ünsal of Beko Elektronik, Turkey
Beko Elektronik is the leading consumer electronics manufacturer in Turkey. This paper presents a case study on the application of QFD methodology to the development of a new series of televisions main chassis in order to obtain the optimum picture quality with competitive price characteristics. In addition, the integrated product development process used at Beko Elektronik is discussed.
Modeling Knowledge Integration, Extending House of Quality to Meta-Fusion by evin Marler of Raytheon E-Systems, USA
This paper shows how the House of Quality (HOQ) models within QFD can be extended through Meta-Fusion to evaluate teaming arrangements. Meta-Fusion is the effective integration of knowledge from industry partners, educational institutions, and government agencies. A team from Raytheon E-Systems' Garland facility will demonstrate how Meta-Fusion HOQ was used to propose a teaming arrangement to produce a virtual-reality training system.
Systematic Application of Quality Management Principles in a Military Organization by Master Sergeant Ronald G. Ferrick and Staff Sergeant John D. Marshall of the U.S. Air Force, 16th Logistics Group, USA
Introducing quality management principles to military organizations produced some real challenges for this quality integration office. Foremost of these challenges were the acceptance of quality principles such as customer, vision, process, teams, empowerment, and metrics into a military environment. This paper describes the results of this effort and a strategic planning approach to tie all the principles together in a systematic application.
Function Analysis (FA) 1997
Function is the Foundation by Larry Shillito, Eastman Kodak, USA
Function analysis (FA), born in value engineering, has proven to be a valuable tool in the world of QFD. Function is the interface between the customer and product. If we understand the interface between product function and Voice of the Customer (VOC), FA can be used to augment the VOC collection process. this paper will illustrate the use of FA for VOC acquisition and product design and technology selection.
General Industry 1997
Task Deployment: Managing the Human Side of QFD by Glenn Mazur of Japan Business Consultants, Ltd., USA
This paper discusses the history of Task Deployment, its structure based on the 5W2H3C formula plus flow charting, and give examples of applications in QFD from determining project teams, defining market segments based on product usage, guiding customer visits, analyzing customer's business problems, creating job descriptions and plant requirements for service operations, and redefining the New Product Development Process itself. This paper is based on the pioneering work of the late Dr. Shigeru Mizuno (co-developer of QFD with Dr. Akao) and the author's own work over the past twelve years.
20 Ways to Make Sure QFD Will Fail in Your Organization by Mike Wilson of OSW Cornerstone Associates, USA
This paper will draw on extensive experience in the application of QFD to manufacturing and service organizations to report on a composite of customer interactions. Included will be a discussion of success stories, applications of QFD to new industries, unique problems and solutions, and new or supporting techniques that will lead to the successful application of QFD.
QFD: The Swedish Experience by Fredrik Ekdahl and Anders Gustafsson of Linköping University, Sweden
The results from a survey covering over 30 Swedish companies regarding the type of Swedish companies that are using QFD, how they use it, the difficulties they have encountered and the benefits they have realized. Selected case studies will be presented from companies on the leading edge of QFD usage in Sweden.
Confirming Expert Judgment through Correlation by William Slabey of IVON Corporation, USA
This is a paper about a key supporting technique that elevates the relationship matrix from one based solely on expert judgment to more thorough methods. Use of correlation techniques to identify relationships allows expected relationships to be confirmed as well as identifying other unexpected measures that may drive customer perception.
A Non-Traditional Use of QFD: QFD Integrated with Management Systems to Determine Organizational Structure and Performance Evaluation by Richard A. Jacobs of Columbia Gas of Ohio, USA
QFD can be defined as a matrix analysis which can be used to prioritize expectations and resolve conflicts. Management can be viewed as a system comprised of six primary components: leadership, power, culture, accountability, interactivity, and responsibility. By merging these two premises a new technique for determining organizational structure and performance evaluation can be developed. This paper describes this non-traditional use of QFD.
Expand, Collapse, and Subset - The Keys to Small Matrices by Dilworth Lyman of Viewpoint & Understanding Enhancement, USA
Large matrices have been the death of more QFD efforts than any other single cause. This presentation describes how to focus efforts where they are most needed with an increasing level of detail. The methods to accomplish this are Expand, Collapse and Subset. This paper will show how and when to use each of these methods, explaining the mathematics and rigor necessary to preserve the value and accuracy of the matrices.
Systems Thinking Simulations as an Aid for Design QFD by Joe Miller, Quality Process Consulting, USA
Systems Thinking based simulations of proposed product and service concepts provide a powerful extension of QFD. This paper presents specific approaches and examples for defining models from QFD identified functions and quality characteristics, and demonstrates software aided execution of those models. These simulations have proven useful to expand team and management understanding of product concepts and have aided more realistic design target setting.
Accelerating QFD by Gershon Blumstein of Electronic Data Systems, USA
The effect of Trade Off Studies on vehicle development has been successfully applied to developing automotive subsystems. The results have been dramatic in supporting the Concurrent Engineering process. The objective of this paper is to explain how to use the information generated from the Trade Off Study in order to choose the best concept alternative that meets the requirements (needed functions) of several customers. This is used to accelerate the QFD process.
Improving Quality Function Deployment Through Customer Feedback: A Case-Based Reasoning Approach by D.A. Adams, Prof. C. Irgens and Dr. E. MacArthur of University of Paisley
It may be possible to learn by correlating historic QFDs with customer feedback data. Identification of similarities between QFDs and historic QFDs should enable the reuse of solutions - or partial solutions - which worked, the omission of unsuccessful solutions, or the improvement of solutions. This paper explains this concept and a prototype system which adopts an artificial intelligence technique known as Case-Based Reasoning to identify similarities between new and historic QFDs.
Prioritizing Customer Requirements in a Rapidly Changing Marketplace by Bill Naccarato of Dade International, USA
Changes in health care financing methods have led to substantial changes in health care delivery, which provide a significant challenge for new product development. Using a structured process for product definition, the author's business is now developing an analyzer that would facilitate workstation consolidation within hospital clinical laboratory.
A QFD-Based Evaluation of Prevention Services by R. Hales, ProA ction Development, Inc.; Pamela Clark and Don Lakes of TriHealth, US
This paper describes the process used to develop an overall corporate strategy, structure and service based solely on the benefits TriHealth's customers desire from a Prevention Services provider.
Hoshin Planning 1997
Hoshin Planning and QFD by Ian Ferguson of Ian Ferguson Associates, UK
This paper discusses the organizational and cultural needs required of a company before considering implementing Policy Deployment using a Hoshin Kanri methodology. A step-by-step process is described to make a company mission and values a reality by directional strategies and goals being deployed through targeted policies, into plans with measurable control items.
A Competitive Advantage by Pamela Dunham, formerly with AIDA-Dayton Technologies Corporation, USA
This paper describes how a manufacturer of metal forming presses and auxiliary equipment utilized QFD, Strategic Planning and Policy Deployment to address the basic business questions of: What is important to our customers?, What activities should be our focus in the next 1-5 years?, How do we focus associates on the company strategic objectives? and How do we gain and sustain a competitive advantage in the marketplace?
Reliability Function Deployment - RFD: A Systems Approach by Jayant Trewn and Dr.Kai Yang, Wayne State University, USA
The purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework to be used to deploy reliability characteristics into the functional design of a system (component, part, or a product as a combination of components or parts). Integration of reliability requirements into the design of a system, product or process is achieved through an integration of QFD techniques with Fault Tree Analysis.
Deploying Software QFD Within Large Organizations by Thomas Gorham and Mark P. McDonald of Andersen Consulting, USA
This paper is a summary of approximately 30 case studies where QFD has been used for software development. The paper will discuss success stories and areas for improvement spanning utilities, financial services, manufacturing, telecommunications and other industries, as well as around the world including the U. S., Canada, Australia, and Germany.
Project QFD Managing Software Development Projects by Richard E. Zultner, Zultner & Co., USA
Blitz QFD, a "maximum value for minimum effort" approach to QFD, can be used by project managers to concentrate on those project tasks that add the most value to customers. Application of such "efficient customer satisfaction" for a software development project is shown.
Strategic QFD for Product Platform and New Technology Planning by Karla Kuzawinski and Dave Zawadzki of Xerox Engineering Systems, USA
As corporations strive to leverage investments in technologies, core competencies, and resources, greater emphasis needs to be put on linking these investments to strategic direction, and getting greater returns by leveraging these investments across families of products. This paper will present how QFD can be used to align both near and long term advanced technology research efforts and corporate strategic direction.
Applying QFD Principles to Strategic Transformation by Robert A. Hunt of Macquarie University, Australia
Based on a major four year study of 127 applications of QFD principles to innovation of physical products, services, software, process and strategy in forty-nine companies in the South-west Pacific Rim, this paper outlines some of the main findings of the study. Among others it gives insight into the importance or otherwise strategic connection and organizational culture for success in innovation and transformation.
A Strategy Formulation Methodology Based on QFD for Traditional Manufacturing Companies by A. Lowe and Keith Ridgway of the University of Sheffield, UK
In order to encourage a market focus, innovation and the adoption of modern manufacturing techniques within local companies, a strategy formulation/review methodology using adapted QFD has been developed at the Manufacturing Research Group at Sheffield University. This paper outlines the basis on which this methodology was built including current thinking in strategy research, innovation techniques and QFD. A step-by-step process for its implementation is described, and a case study where the methodology was applied within a manufacturer of coal mining equipment is given.
Advanced QFD Techniques for Creating a Competitive Edge in a Deregulated Telephone Market by Martin Lossie, Coopers & Lybrand Management Consultants, USA
This paper presents a success story of the application of QFD in the area of telecommunications service provider. Deregulation enables a cable TV operator in The Netherlands to introduce telephone service to residential and business customers. The ability to compete with the incumbent telephone company required an insight to customer satisfaction drivers. QFD was successfully used to identify a comprehensive portfolio of company ingredients that form the basis for creating customer satisfaction.
QFD As a GIDE to Product Realization by David Bowen of Lucent Technologies Network Systems and Patrick G. Brown of Lucent Technologies Bell Laboratories, USA
This paper illustrates the successful application of QFD to an internal process alignment between historically warring functions. Network Systems' use of a QFD approach to frame and translate these stakeholders' voices into Guidelines for Installation, Design & Engineering (GIDE) in a cross-organizational setting has enabled Network Systems to foster product designs that are better-aligned with the entire value creation chain, helping ensure lower end-to-end costs and faster product introduction & change cycles.
Training and Education 1997
Training Function Deployment: Applying QFD to Staff Development by John Stampen, Home Savings and Leveraged Learning, USA
Training Function Deployment (TFD) is a specialized application of QFD that helps assure organizations that their employees are able to perform important job functions. This paper describes the TFD process which begins by building a position profile that prioritizes development goals and identifies related knowledge and skills. It then determines the learning options that will have the greatest likelihood of impacting job performance.
TRIZ, QFD and Taguchi Connection by J. Terninko of Responsible Management, USA
Taguchi's approach to robust designs has been in North America since 1981. QFD arrived in 1984 and the new comer TRIZ arrived publicly in 1991. They each have their strengths and weaknesses but together they become an unbeatable powerhouse of Customer Driven Robust Innovations. This paper discusses the linkages between these and other powerful quality tools. The synergy formed becomes the ideal design process.
TRIZ and Integrated New Product Development by Steve Ungvari of SPI, Inc., USA
In today's fiercely competitive marketplace, companies must find new strategies to fuel sustainable competitive advantage and growth. New product development coupled to innovation provides organizations unique opportunities to shift the competitive balance in their favor. TRIZ is a powerful new tool that will leverage the power of innovation into the new product development process. This paper will provide the rationale for the use of the tool and explain how the specific TRIZ tools are to be used to vastly improve the new product development process.
TRIZ: Acceleration of Conceptual Design in Product Development by Zinovy Royzen of TRIZ Consulting, Inc., USA
Understanding and forecasting of the inevitable evolution of a product accelerates its development, eliminates overlooking of the most promising concepts, helps to develop the strategy of innovation, protects the market by umbrella patents and helps to avoid some very expensive mistakes. This paper describes some of TRIZ approaches to accelerate conceptual design in product development.
Application of TRIZ for Design of New Materials by Semyon D. Savransky, West Coast Quartz Corporation, USA.
TRIZ is used for the innovative resolution of various technical and physical contradictions in the artificial systems. This paper will illustrate the use of TRIZ principles, such as SuField Analysis, for the design of new materials for electronic applications and the novel class of superconductors - chalcogenide glasses and even melts.
Anticipatory Failure Determination (AFD): The Application of TRIZ to Risk Analysis by Stan Kaplan of Bayesian Systems, Inc., USA
Today there is burgeoning interest in quantitatively assessing risk. This interest ranges over a huge spectrum from food safety and environment to transportation, power generation, business risk, investment risk, military risk, etc. One new method is Anticipatory Failure Determination (AFD) and is an application of Russian theory, TRIZ, of inventive problem solving. This paper will present an exposition of AFD in comparison to and within the context formed by the conventional approaches.
Voice of Customer 1997
Using VR-Based Conjoint to Capture the Voice of the Customer by Lisa Wood, Mohan Bala, Dean Hering of Research Triangle Institute and Todd Romig of Volvo GM Heavy Truck
This paper describes how Research Triangle Institute used an innovative new tool - TradeOff VRTM - to incorporate the voice of the customer into the product planning process at Volvo GM Heavy Truck. Volvo used TradeOff VRTM - which combines conjoint analysis and virtual reality - to gather customer preferences for feature of a new truck early in the product design process without using physical prototypes.