QFD Symposium Transactions
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The 23rd Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-23-0)
Medical Device 2011
"The QFD Process at Medtronic — Creating the Next Generation of Insulin Pumps and Sensors" by Carey Hepler, QFD Black Belt® and 2010 recipient of Akao Prize, Medtronic; Cary Talbot, QFD Black Belt®, Senior Marketing Product Planner, Medtronic, USA
Changes in technology and customer expectations are creating many new opportunities for medical device organizations. As the oldest and most respected diabetic medical device organization in the world, Medtronic MiniMed strives to stay ahead of the competition by quickly responding to these changes with new and improved insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitoring products.
Recently, we have began using QFD to discover the unspoken customer needs for targeted portions of our population. QFD has allowed us to convert their needs into new products, services, and features to delight and attract new customers as well as retain current customers.
This paper will describe some of the new opportunities we are facing, and show step by step how we are addressing them by understanding the Voice of the Customer and innovating and implementing exciting solutions. When : December 3, 2011 (Sat) (registration 7 am, symposium 8am–5pm, reception 5pm–6pm)
Keywords: Voice of the customer, QFD, cross-functional teams, design, prioritization, AHP, segments, medical device QFD
Six Sigma and QFD 2011
"Using QFD to Organize Design for Six Sigma" by Benson Tendler, VP Quality (ret.), Research In Motion, Canada; Gregory Watson, Business Excellence Solutions, Ltd., Finland; and Camille DeYong, Associate Professor, Oklahoma State University, USA
DFSS tools require organization using Product Line Management methods. QFD provides a means to sequentially develop market features into engineering functions that are specified by quantitative requirements which are testable. Understanding the Voice of the Customer and using the Kano Model to characterize engineering functions that are integrated with QFD can help to provide creative insights.
This paper illustrates how to develop and deploy this approach to DFSS using QFD as an organization method and using the Kano Model to focus on the transition of market features into engineering functions.
Keywords: Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), Kano model, Voice of the customer (VoC), Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and DFSS
IT Architecture Management / IT Service Management 2011
"Applying QFD Process, Tools and Techniques for Service Management: Business and IT Service Management (BSM & ITSM)" by Rajesh Radhakrishnan, Senior Managing Consultant & IT Architect, IBM, USA
Quality Function Deployment and the House of Quality (HoQ) are tools that have relevance for field of IT management, particularly architecture management (including requirements management) and IT service management (including service quality management). This paper provides a detailed method to use QFD and HoQ in the:
- Requirements Management Process:
- Architecture Development Management Process, as well as
- Service Management Processes such as: Availability Management, Continuity Management, and Incident Management, among others.
This paper focuses on the use of QFD and HoQ and their applications for enterprise architecture domains and IT service management domains. Specific examples of applications of QFD for IT enabled business services (such as CRM services) and IT services (such as messaging services) will be discussed.
Keywords: Service Management, Six Sigma, QFD, Architecture Management, Requirements Management
Healthcare QFD 2011
"Using QFD to Design a Multi-Disciplinary Clinic" by Jim Grimm, Quality Coordinator, Center of Clinical Effectiveness, Children's Mercy Hospital; Deb Denavs, consultant/ instructor, Johnson County Community College; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt® and recipient of 1998 Akao Prize® for Excellence, QFD Institute, USA.
Pediatric patients and families have become discriminating shoppers for healthcare. Hospitals must improve quality and attract and retain patients. This paper proposes Quality Function Deployment ( QFD) as a way to ensure focus on the vital few requirements, creating a structured planning and decision making methodology for capturing and translating stakeholder requirements into useful clinic language for the building of the Virtual Clinic.
The QFD tools used include Customer Segments Table, Customer Process Model, Customer Voice Table, Gemba Visit Table, Customer Needs Hierarchy Diagram, Analytical Hierarchy Process, Customer Needs Hierarchy Diagram With AHP Priorities.
Keywords: AHP, Multi-Disciplinary Clinic, Patient and Family Centered Care, Virtual Clinic, VOB, VOC, Healthcare QFD
Corporate Governance 2011
"QFD Applications for the Board of Directors" by Gregory H. Watson, chairman, International Academy for Quality; Glenn H. Mazur, QFD Red Belt® and recipient of 1998 Akao Prize® for Excellence, QFD Institute, USA; Yoji Akao, Ph.D., Yamagata University, Japan.
Quality Function Deployment is not just a methodology that is useful for engineering or marketing — it is also helpful for organizing the design and development of policy by the Board of Directors. The International Academy for Quality (IAQ) has been developing the concept of "governance quality" over the past 15 years. Recently, IAQ has published an assessment methodology for Boards of Directors to apply in assessing their level of maturity in application of quality in the practices of their activities.
This paper and presentation will extend this work by developing infrastructure for the leadership initiatives of a Board in the encouragement of continuous improvement of the organization from their level of executive oversight. The methodology for developing a strategic approach to quality definition and deployment will be the "Voice of the Customer" as developed using QFD.
Keywords: Corporate Governance, QFD for Boards of Directors, policy development QFD
Complex Systems / Systems Engineering 2011
"Systems Engineering (SE) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD): A SE Perspective on Opportunities for Complementary Application in the Development of Complex Systems" by Michael W. Grenn, PhD Candidate, The George Washington University (Deputy Director, DTSA); Shahram Sarkani, Ph.D., P.E., Professor of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, The George Washington University; Thomas Mazzuchi, D.Sc., Professor of Operations Research, The George Washington University, USA
Basic principles of SE are described with emphasis on the SE process and the challenges associated with development of highly complex systems. SE and QFD are top-down, structured, disciplined and tailorable problem-solving processes for identifying customer-focused system solutions, and both processes typically start with an effort to fully understand customer needs. SE can be generally characterized as a functional architecture-based analysis approach to embed quality requirements into the system, and QFD can be generally characterized as a physical architecture-based analysis approach to embed quality functions into business processes. The different perspectives offer potential for complementary application to improve complex system development.
Opportunities for complementary application of SE and QFD in the areas of problem understanding, requirements engineering, quality management, cross-functional teamwork, communication, risk management, value engineering, verification and validation, and integrated life-cycle engineering are summarized. The relationship between SE and QFD is illustrated in some cases using figures and diagrams generally accepted to represent best practices. A generalized method for estimation of system complexity early in SE and QFD process is described and a research framework for retrospective analysis of Department of Defense (DoD) Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs) and commercial engineering projects is discussed. Hypotheses of the relationship between system complexity, design effort, design review, requirements stability, and program success are suggested to gain further insight into the correlation between SE and QFD (comprehensive, 4-phase model, SE+QFD) design effort and successful development of complex systems.
Keywords: systems engineering (SE); quality function deployment (QFD); complex systems; major defense acquisition program (MDAP); customer needs; requirements; risk; lifecycle; design effort; design review; requirements stability; project success; complexity estimation
Dynamic Capability Theory / Kano Model 2011
"Applying Dynamic Capability Theory to Understand the Kano Model for Attractive Quality" by Ali Masoudi, PostTech, South Korea; Gregory H. Watson, Chairman, IAQ; Camille De Yong, Assistant Professor, Oklahoma State University, USA; Benson Tendler, VP Quality (ret.), RIM, Canada
The concept of Dynamic Capability was proposed by David J. Teece as a means to explain certain phenomena regarding innovation in new product development. The Theory of Attractive Quality developed by Noriaki Kano explains the relationship between functional design capability and customer satisfaction for three functional quality conditions.
This paper links these two concepts. A proposed scalar relationship between the Kano functions will be proposed based on the degree of capability or incapability based on the Teece concept of Dynamic capability as a means to better explain the erosion of quality functions over time.
Keywords: Dynamic Capability, Kano model, functional quality, customer satisfaction
The 16th International & 22nd N. American Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-22-2)
Chemical Industry 2010
The Process of New Product Development to Assure Customer Satisfaction and Create New Business Opportunity in Chemical Industry by Paweena Lertchanyakul, SCG Chemicals Co., Ltd., THAILAND; Kritaya Suparnpongs, Corporate Total Quality Promotion Center, The Siam Cement PLC, THAILAND
This paper reports a QFD application in the chemical industry, specifically how QFD helps understanding of latent customer needs and incorporating them in the company's new product development and quality assurance process, leading to better customer satisfaction and business growth for both the company and their customers and creation of new market opportunities. A House of Quality matrix (HoQ), Design of Experiment (DOE), Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (PFMEA), Hazard Analysis (PHA), and Quality Assurance process charts were used, as well as product design review (DR) techniques for assuring product safety and liability from the initial development process. [Keywords: Solid Surface, QFD, Design of Experiment (DOE), Product Hazard Analysis (PHA), Process Failure Mode, and Effect Analysis (PFMEA)]
Consumer Products 2010
A Case Study on the Development of a Folding Bicycle (Keynote) by Yoji Akao, Ph.D., Yamagata University Graduate School, JAPAN
An overview of QFD will be presented by a founder of QFD. QFD's intrinsic framework for the Knowledge Management and basic steps of QFD are shown through a student project for developing a folding bicycle. [Keywords: Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Comprehensive QFD, Knowledge Management Keywords: Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Comprehensive QFD, Knowledge Management ]
Education / Vocational Training 2010
Development of Educational Structure for Business Students in Quantitative Methods Area by Aysun Kapucugil Ikiz, Ph.D., QFD Green Belt®; Guzin Ozdagoglu, Ph.D.; Sabri Erdem, Ph.D.; and Ferkan Kaplanseren, Ph.D. of Dokuz Eylul University, TURKEY
This paper addresses how to align the educational structures of the business school program at Dokuz Eylul University in Turkey with the Bologna Process, an European higher education reform through international cooperation and academic exchange. To facilitate mobility of academic talents and offer broader access to high-quality higher education as aimed by this initiative, it is essential to have a systematic methodology to figure out the knowledge, skills, and competency requirements with respect to stakeholders' requirements and transform them into the commonly accepted professional and learning outcomes. The insights from this study can help other universities see how to perceive their stakeholders' requirements and deploy them into their curriculum by expanding the scope to the other areas in all disciplines. [Keywords: Bologna Process, European Higher Education Area, QFD, Curriculum Development, Business Administration, Quantitative Methods]
QFD-based Curriculum Development Model for Industrial Training by Catherine Y. P. Chan, Ph.D., QFD Black Belt®, Hong Kong QFD Association, Hong Kong, PRC; Glenn H. Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute, USA and ICQFD
The basic principles of QFD were adopted to develop an industrial training curriculum model for service-oriented manufacturing industries in Hong Kong. Recognizing the importance of dually meeting job performance requirements and knowledge needs of the incumbents, the model is characterized by the performance-focused as well as learning-oriented approaches, based on the Voice of Customers from both employers and individuals, as well as the dynamics of trainers who make use of their subject-matter expertise to suggest the kinds of industrial knowledge for meeting the defined performance needs vs. course developers who make use of his/her professional knowledge to synthesis the derived subjects into an effective and coherent curriculum. Affinity Diagram, VOC Table, and AHP were used as the tools for assisting the operation of the model. [Keywords: QFD, Curriculum Development, Industrial Training, Vocational Training]
Curriculum Planning for Education in Enterprise Resource Planning Systems by Lars Oliver Mautsch, Georg Herzwurm, Ph.D., Benedikt Krams, and Sixten Schockert of Universität Stuttgart, GERMANY
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is nowadays dominated by the major software producers and tends to be product-driven and solution-oriented. This research presents an approach for planning a more customer-oriented education in ERP software through the use of QFD techniques and by focusing on the most valuable modules within an education. Matrix consistency rules are applied so as to ensure identified customer requirements are met by the service offering of the university and to avoid wasting of scarce resources. A House of Quality (HoQ) matrix and pair-wise comparison are among the methods that will be shown. [ Keywords: Enterprise Resource Planning, Education, Curriculum Planning, QFD
An Application of ANP together with Conjoint Analysis to Political Decision Making in Local Government by Yasushi Kasai, Yamanashi Prefectural Office/University of Yamanashi, JAPAN; Masanobu Yoshikawa, Yoshimichi Watanabe, and Hisakazu Shindo, Ph.D. of University of Yamanashi, JAPAN
This paper proposes an application of Analytic Network Process (ANP) and Conjoint Analysis (CA) in a local government decision-making process concerning the use of public land for establishment of a community IT activity center, in an attempt to make policy making and executing in this Japanese prefectural government more transparent and improve accountability of political decisions, to better serve its diverse constituents. [ Keywords: Municipal Policy Making, Analytic Network Process (ANP), Conjoint Analysis (CA)]
DREAM/QFD to Re-design Staff Service Excellence at Rutland Regional Hospital Systems by Darren Childs, QFD Green Belt; Melissa Bartlett, QFD Green Belt®; and Shannon Stover, QFD Green Belt® of Rutland Regional Health Systems, USA; Dom Serino, QFD Gold Belt®, Rutland Health Foundation, USA; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Japan Business Consultants, QFD Institute, USA / ICQFD
As a regional medical facility, the goal of Rutland Regional Health Systems is to develop standardized processes and clear expectations for how they serve their customers. Through working to apply quality thinking, the hospital team has identified the non-clinical areas needing improvements such as the way they deliver care to the patients, staff behaviors, words, body languages and different team coordination. This presentation will share an on-going project that demonstrates this hospital's commitment to understanding what is important to their patients and bringing fresh improvements in the delivery of patient care and the mind-set of healthcare professionals through the use of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and DREAM (Design/Redesign Effectiveness Assurance Method). [ Keywords: Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Service Excellence, Healthcare, Voice of the Customer (VOC), Design/Redesign Effectiveness Assurance Method (DREAM)]
QFD to Re-design New Physician Orientation and Induction: Connecting New Physicians into a Healthcare Community by Jill Jesso-White, QFD Green Belt®, Rutland Regional Medical Center, USA; Glenn H. Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute, USA and ICQFD
The physician induction process is an interactive process beginning from the recruitment of a physician and continuing over the first year to help him/her as well as the doctor's family adjust to both the medical and broader community environment. Its success is crucial to physician retention and development of a happy work force that can ultimately affect better patient care. This project shares our ongoing efforts to build a better process of orienting and inducting new physicians in our hospital and community, by using Modern QFD tools and Voice of the new physician feedback. [Keywords: Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), physician orientation, healthcare, Voice of the Customer (VOC), Design/Redesign Effectiveness Assurance Method (DREAM)]
Complex IT Systems Design Using Both Traditional QFD and Blitz QFD® by Kim Stansfield, Ph.D., QFD Black Belt®, CSC Computer Sciences Ltd., UK; Jeff Cole, Six Sigma Black Belt, CSC Computer Sciences Ltd., UK; Glenn H Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Japan Business Consultants Ltd., QFD Institute, USA and ICQFD
This paper shows the benefits of traditional and Modern QFD approaches applied to align design complex IT Systems to meet customers' priority business needs. The uniqueness of this paper is the comparative study of Traditional QFD vs. Modern QFD - a rare opportunity in real business applications - in Complex IT System design and the revelation that how the associated prioritization and value analysis techniques in the latter bring alignment with business drivers - a key issue for IT Systems design today. First, it discusses Traditional QFD supported by other Six Sigma Methods, namely Boundary Analysis, Supplier, Input, Process, Output, Customer (SIPOC) and Critical To Quality Characteristic Analysis, and Prioritization using Pair-wise Comparison. It then demonstrates how inclusion of Blitz QFD® methods brings a level of clarity to customer and stakeholder value for the Business Solution and Business Architecture on which IT Systems are developed. [Keywords: Blitz QFD®, Traditional QFD, IT Systems, Design]
Value-based Pricing as Origin for New and Further Development of IT-Products - Usage of Quality Function Deployment and Target Costing for Customer-oriented Pricing by Georg Herzwurm, Ph.D. and Sixten Schockert, Universität Stuttgart / QFD Institut Deutschland e. V., GERMANY; Benedikt Krams and Lars Oliver Mautsch, QFD Institut Deutschland e. V., GERMANY
By applying QFD and Target Costing approaches, we can use derived pricing strategies and thereby achieve cost reduction in the customer-oriented, value-based pricing of IT-products. This paper considers not only established IT products but also software as a service, business and delivery model where software is distributed via the Internet without the need of installation on a client. Setting prices, therefore, is very challenging. For new development of IT products, this presentation will show an approach of combined usage of QFD and Target Costing to monitor the ex-post of IT development projects. For further development of IT products, the approach can be used to derive pricing strategies to be communicated into the market. [Keywords: QFD, Target Costing, Software Development of IT Products (SaaS), Value-based Pricing, Pricing Strategies]
Taming IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) with QFD by Wolfram Pietsch, Ph.D., Aachen University of Applied Sciences, GERMANY
Professionalization of IT Services gained increasing attention in business and academia supported by the emergence of the process-oriented ITIL, a de-facto international standard for IT Service Management. The current version of ITIL comprises of total 1343 pages. An extensive employment of such a complex framework may lead to over-regulation. ITIL currently specifies only 'Whats'; it must detail the ‘how’ if it is to be implemented in business environment, but this would increase complexity. This issue has been addressed within a large telecommunication enterprise, solved with a complex QFD deployment, and validated within a pilot project. This presentation will show the specific toolset and tailoring process geared to IT service management. [ Keywords: IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL), Stakeholder Analysis, Audit, Pareto, Portfolio]
Enhancement of QFD Tool “T2T” and Its Application for Sightseeing Contents by Bao Tuoya, Zheng GenZhao, Masanobu Yoshikawa, Yoshimichi Watanabe, and Hisakazu Shindo, Ph.D., University of Yamanashi, JAPAN
This paper reports the functional enhancement of T2T, a QFD tool that was developed by the authors at Yamanashi University in Japan to simplify the construction of the Japanese Quality Chart, using the quantification method called QM3. The presentation will discuss the enhancement, challenges, and an example of its application in an online sightseeing information project. [Keywords: QFD tool, Quantification method, Two-way tables, Sightseeing contents]
A Holistic Model for Structuring requirements Considering the Degree of Requirements’ Fulfillment and Its Implementation for Data Processing by Priv. Doz. Dr.-Ing. Robert Refflinghaus, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Horst-Artur Crostack, and Dipl.-Kff. Sandra Klute of Dortmund University of Technology, GERMANY
When planning and developing intra-logistical facilities, many stakeholder requirements with different weightings have to be considered in the early stages of QFD. This paper presents a holistic multidimensional structuring model including feedback. Using an example of a roll conveyer, an appropriate structure for a productive transfer into QFD is presented, along with an overview of the developed model and its dimensions, including the requirements concerning surroundings, information, reference object, the weighted level of performance and customer satisfaction. [Keywords: Requirements, Stakeholder, Multi-dimensional Model]
Computer-aided Method for Automatic Identification of Effect Relations between Requirements on an Intra-logistics Facility by Dipl.-Ing. Constanze Kolbe, Dr.-Ing. Horst-Artur Crostack, and Priv. Doz. Dr.-Ing. Robert Refflinghaus of Dortmund University of Technology, GERMANY
While planning an intra-logistics facility, a huge number of requirements from several stakeholders are emitted. Effect relations are occurring among requirements, according to technical correlation and trade-offs between stakeholders. This study will present a new computer-aided method which enables an automatic cognition of requirement relations and evaluation based on their negative or positive effects. The method has been implemented as a software system for establishing technical-functional requirement category. [Keywords: Requirement, Requirement Relation, Intra-logistics Facility, Quality Function Deployment]
QFD for planning the Marketing Mix by Dipl.-Wirt.-Inf. Sixten Schockert and Georg Herzwurm, Ph.D., Universität Stuttgart / QFD Institut Deutschland e. V., GERMANY; Benedikt Krams and Lars Oliver, QFD Institut Deutschland e. V., GERMANY; Wolfram Pietsch, Ph.D., Aachen University of Applied Sciences / QFD Institut Deutschland e. V., GERMANY
This paper presents an application of QFD in marketing and product planning. It shows QFD as a tool for product managers for mediating between product development and marketing interests, especially with focus on planning the marketing communication activities. Two case studies are shown to illustrate QFD’s capability to mediate / integrate product management and the mutual benefit of QFD use in marketing. Tools used in these examples include message-means-matrix and IT product compass. [Keywords: Product Management, Marketing Mix, IT, Case Studies]
The Customer's Way: Know what to do because you know why you do it by David Mitchell, Eaton Corporation, USA; Daniel Walker, River’s End Consulting, USA
Eaton, a global technology leader in electrical and industrial systems for aerospace, hydraulics, and vehicles, uses a phase gated product development cycle. During the initial deployment, the project team had experienced a gap in the ability to systematically identify essential customer wants and needs and to convert those into product requirements. This paper describes how they were able to gain clear directions by developing survey questions for each stakeholder that resulted in excellent feeder stock information for QFD House-1. [Keywords: Customer Wants and Needs, Quality Function Deployment, Voice of the Customer, Question Guides, Affinitization, Survey, House of Quality]
An Efficient Customer Group Selection for Quality Function Deployment by Ali Ahmady, Wichita State University, USA; Don Malzahn, Ph.D., Wichita State University, USA; S. Hossein Cheraghi, Ph.D., Western New England College, USA
This paper proposes a Rough Set-based approach to efficiently identify the consistent user classes whose perceptions on functional and non-functional requirements of a product play an important role in effective product design. Rough Set is a powerful mathematical approach which can identify redundant data and is effective in handling non-linear and non normal data commonly used in human evaluations such as QFD. This approach is helpful for companies that rely on traditional market segmentation to initiate and implement QFD projects, as it provides a mean to redefine primary customer groupings whose perceived satisfaction lead to purchasing decisions. A case study of website design is used to illustrate the approach. [Keywords: QFD, Rough Set, Customer Segmentation, Market Segmentation, Customer Groupings]
QFD Implementation 2010
Integrating QFD into Phase-Gates Product Design (Keynote) by Glenn H. Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute, USA & International Council for QFD
Quality approaches to new product development as a pipeline for commercialization has been growing in recent years. Methods such as Stage-Gate®, Design for Six Sigma, Design for Lean Sigma, and others have been helping organizations structure their techniques. QFD has been recognized by all these methods as an important tool set within the process, but exactly what QFD tools to use and when to use them must be determined on a case-by-case basis by custom-tailoring the QFD process to the organization and the development process being used. This paper shows how to expertly integrate QFD into different processes and different companies, through similarities and differences in each. The discussion will include the characteristics of Stage-Gate®, Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), Design for Lean Sigma, and how to truly benefit from these and other New Product Development (NPD) techniques by efficiently and correctly integrating QFD through customization into your unique NPD process and business strategy. [Keywords: Stage-Gate®, Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), Design for Lean Sigma, Integration of QFD (Quality Function Deployment), QFD Customization, New Product Development (NPD), Quality Methods]
Efficient Way to Advance Policy Management Using QFD by Koji Tanaka, Kanjie Associates Inc., Knowledge Management Society of Japan, JAPAN
The management system for achieving fiscal year targets is called policy management. It is employed by many Japanese companies and relies on daily management of improvement activities by managers and workers. This paper reports the use of business function development in the policy management system to make the job functions visible for more efficient and effective targets setting. [Keywords: Job Function Deployment, Policy Management, Control Item]
The Fusion of QFD and Next Generation PLM including Systems Engineering by Tadao Nakamura, Competency Center Division, Dassault Systemes K.K., JAPAN
This paper introduces the integration of QFD and the latest Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) tools in Japan, including Systems Engineering. The most important element in successful product development is the human activities that cannot be done automatically by software. QFD plays an important role in offering the means for multi-discipline workers to relate to a development project in analyzing the requirements and organizing defined information that are important for the course of PLM. [Keywords: QFD, PLM (Product Lifecylce Management), Systems Engineering, CAD, PDM (Product Data Management), CAE, MBE (Model-based Engineering), Requirement Management, VR (Virtual Reality)]
QFD for the Company’s Sustainable Growth ― A trial of the new QFD training in Japan by Kazushi Nagai, Tamagawa University, JAPAN; Tadashi Ohfuji, Tamagawa University, JAPAN; Masamitsu Kiuchi, Ph.D., Josai University, JAPAN
In 2007, the authors presented a concept named e7-QFD (evolution 7-QFD) for uniting QFD with other statistical methods such as design of experiments, Taguchi method, etc. that called for construction of Quality Management System centered around a Japanese Quality Table (an initiative they named Sus-QFD). This was driven by the authors' research on helping Japanese companies apply QFD more smoothly. This paper discusses the progress with a case study example from the current House of Quality-based QFD training by Japan's trade group JUSE and the authors which this research aims to improve by using customer complaints as the source data. [Keywords: evolution7-QFD, Sustainable growth QFD, QFD training]
A Critical Analysis of QFD Application in Brazil after 20 Years of Its Application by Paulo A. Cauchick Miguel, Ph.D., Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, BRAZIL
This paper will discuss QFD applications by the academics and industry practitioners in a developing country. It offers a critical analysis of the types of matrices, scales, Voice of Customer and other tools that are often used in QFD applications in Brazil and the future opportunities for improvement. [Keywords: Brazil, QFD application, voice of customer, matrices, scales]
QFD for Effective Business Process Design (II) by Hideaki Haraga, Innovation Advancement Center, Konica Minolta Technology Center, Inc., JAPAN
In 2008, the author reported the knowledge workers' method of designing a business process by relating job-assurance elements that progressed from a high-ranking target to job functions. The method, however, had a weakness that required deployment of objectives into individual job assurance items, resulting in a big matrix. This paper reports improvements where assurance items of each job are extracted precisely and efficiently, leading to not only quality assurance but also a method of revamping internal operations such as planning, design, and prototyping. [Keywords: Job Function, Assurance Items, Job Function Deployment, Business Process Design]
Visualization of Attainment Levels of Design by Hiroyuki Okamoto, Engineering Process Innovation Planning Center, Ricoh Company, Ltd., JAPAN
This paper reports a trial to make visible the levels of design attainment in the design phase. A QFD matrix, wisdom, and information about past failures and so forth were used to identify content omissions in verification, so as to prevent design imperfection from resulting. The degree of risk from a quality loss originating from imperfect design was evaluated and used to guide the manager's decision. [Keywords: Attainment Levels, Risk, Visualization, QFD, Excel Application
Prevention of Recurrence and Preventive Measures of Service Quality Problem by Noriharu Kaneko, Service Quality Management Ltd. and CBM Co., Ltd., JAPAN
What is recurrence prevention and how to grasp the facts concerning service quality failures and how to devise countermeasures, how to prepare Standard Operating Procedures as the preventive measure against service quality failures? These are explained through actual cases and the relation to the QFD concept. [Keywords: Recurrence Prevention, Preventive Measures, Service Quality Problems, Failure Mode Analysis, SOP, Visual Manual, Principles of Handling Claims, QA in Service Sectors]
Developing a Church Growth Strategy through QFD, AHP, and Balanced Scorecard Strategy Mapping by Chad M. Johnson, QFD Black Belt®, Six Sigma Master Black Belt, TRW Automotive - Braking Division, USA
In order to flourish, today's church must be extremely focused with both its mission and prioritized objectives, and also capable of adjusting quickly as this landscape changes, just as in any business and organization. As such, it is important to have a repeatable process to develop, implement, and maintain an effective long-range plan. In the case of a church or any community activist group or non-profit organization for that matter, such a planning process is an exercise typically accomplished by an ever-changing mix of volunteers who must make sense of a vast, diverse, and sometimes precarious Voice of Customer landscape. This case study shares a Michigan church's application of Modern QFD tools, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), and Balanced Scorecard® approaches to derive the customer needs from church Gemba feedback and Customer Voice Table (CVT). The needs were then "affinitize" and made into a hierarchy diagram where AHP was applied to determine relative priorities with respect to the highest level objective of achieving sustainable church growth. [Keywords: Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Service Excellence, Healthcare, Voice of the Customer (VOC), Design/Redesign Effectiveness Assurance]
The 21st Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-21-4)
Consumer Branding & Marketing 2009
Why We Drink Beer: Using QFD, Kansei, and AHP to Understand How Consumers Identify with Brands by Theera Vongpatanasin, QFD Black Belt®, Managing Director, Boonrawd Trading International Co., Ltd., Thailand; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute / Japan Business Consultants, Ltd., USA.
There are numerous approaches for understanding consumer motivation and insight. This paper explores the application of new product development methods such as Quality Function Deployment, Kansei Engineering, and Analytic Hierarchy Process to assist sales and marketing groups to better understand how customers feel about the products they buy. QFD is a Japanese created approach to translating the voice of the customer into product functional requirements, kansei is a Japanese created approach to identify product sensory attributes that affect consumer emotions and image, and the AHP is an American created method to determine priorities based on human decision making modes. The authors have applied these techniques to learn about how the image that Thailand’s premier beer, Singha, is perceived by consumers in the U.K. to apply the findings for future marketing and branding campaigns. [Keywords: Gemba Study, Consumer Branding, Foreign Markets, Marketing, Kansei Engineering, AHP, Modern QFD]
Cost Cutting / Price Deployment 2009
Cost-cutting QFD: How to Reduce Non-value Added Costs in Goods and Services by Harold Ross, QFD Green Belt®, Director, QFD Institute, USA
Since the 1960s, QFD has been used by companies around the world and in numerous industries to add quality, value, and customer satisfaction during the design and development of new products and services. Through a linked series of analytic tools, the Voice of the Customer can be deployed into design, build, and delivery specifications and identify the critical tasks to achieve them. Though most QFD studies focus on improving customer satisfaction by increasing the functionality or performance of the product, in these difficult economic times, "low cost" and "price" have become important elements in purchasing decisions. Price being defined as cost plus profit, traditional cost cutting approaches include value engineering to reduce design cost or lean activities to reduce manufacturing waste. QFD can offer an additional approach that enables companies to remove functions and performance that add little value to customers, bringing features in line with the benefits they give the customer — as defined by the customer. This paper will re-visit Cost Deployment, which was integrated by Dr. Akao in late 1970s but has never gained much traction outside Japan, as well as review additional tools that companies can use for Cost-Cutting based on Reverse-QFD, Value Engineering, and others methods.[ Keywords: QFD Cost Deployment, Price Reduction, Value Engineering (VE), Reverse QFD, Customer Value]
International Operations / Machine Tools 2009
Globalizing Gemba Visits for Multinationals by Nicklas Bylund, Ph.D., QFD Black Belt®, Sandvik Coromant, Sweden; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd. and QFD Institute.
There are approaches to improving a company’s new product development process by improving bits and pieces, but a more thorough impact is accomplished with a chain of well integrated methods in an educational package including certified skill levels. QFD is used by companies to better understand the spoken and unspoken customer needs and their priority, and then translate them into product requirements, assuring quality throughout the design, manufacturing, and after-sales phases. The traditional QFD tool set focuses on time consuming matrices, called 'houses,' but in today’s lean businesses, the resources available to do this depth of analysis are reduced. Furthermore the matrices have often overshadowed the true soul of QFD, i.e. drive customer needs through the whole process. More efficient methods have been introduced by the QFD Institute under the guidance of Dr. Yoji Akao, the founder of QFD. For a manufacturer with a worldwide presence, especially, translating the Voice of the Customer was found to take on cultural in addition to linguistic imperatives. Sandvik Coromant is a leading manufacturer of metal cutting solutions with worldwide presence, with a long history of innovative products. The company has put forward a goal to reduce by half the time from identifying customer needs to achieving peak sales. This paper will focus on the going to the customer’s Gemba (or machine shop in our case), one of the methods in modern Blitz QFD® methods and discuss the differences of applying Gemba in different countries and cultures where Sand-vik Coromant is active. [Keywords: Need Finding, QFD, Gemba, Product Development, Cutting Tools, Multinational, International VOC]
Food Industry / Process Industry 2009
The Use of QFD to Develop a New Food Offering with a Cross-functional Team—from Consumer Behavior to Formulation and Production by Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd. and QFD Instituteitute
This paper reports QFD application for food products industry using QFD's consumer-centric processes to enhance its existing product development process and to develop a new product. While the service aspects of this offering have been previously published, this paper focuses on the food product itself, and how QFD for a transforming chemical process (mixing and baking) differs from that of an assembled product or human process. Traditional tools such as the House of Quality (HOQ) as well as some of the tools of Modern QFD were integrated in this study as well. It discusses several steps necessary to focus the project and delivery channel, identify customers and their needs and preferences, and then work step-by-step through the process of the food product end characteristics, intermediate batch characteristics, ingredients and process parameters, and key manufacturing and final production quality control points. Sales impact will also be discussed. [ Keywords: Modern QFD, House of Quality (HOQ), Cross-functional Product Development, New Product Development Process]
Lean Initiatives 2009
Beyond Lean: Evolving into a Super Talent Factory by Yong Yin, Visiting Scholar, University of Texas at Dallas, USA; Kathryn E Stecke, Ph.D., Ashbel Smith Professor of Operations Management, School of Management, University of Texas at Dallas, USA; Ikou Kaku, Ph.D., Professor, Akita Prefecture University, Japan
Seru is a next-generation, lean manufacturing concept that has been taken up by some of major Japanese manufacturers in recent years but it is still largely unknown outside Japan. Seru is an inheritance and evolution of Toyota’s lean philosophy and Sony’s one-man production organization, but it is more efficient and flexible than lean when applied to industries such as electronics and auto components, bringing huge benefits. By using historic cases of many global leading companies (Ford, GM, Toyota, Sony, Canon, NEC and others), we will firstly review various evolutionary processes of manufacturing organizations throughout history. Then, we will explain what the "seru system" is and how to create and apply it. Finally, we will predict the expected important impacts of seru for industries. [Keywords: Seru System, Next Generation Lean Manufacturing]
Lean QFD: Evolving QFD for a Lean Six Sigma World by Richard E. Zultner, QFD Red Belt®, Director, QFD Institute, Zultner & Company, USA
Lean Six Sigma is becoming even more popular than Six Sigma. The next step in the evolution of QFD is both to add QFD to Lean, and apply Lean to QFD. This paper explores what QFD can do for Lean, and what Lean can do for QFD. This will result in a Lean QFD well suited for Lean Six Sigma. The House of Quality matrix will be used as an example, resulting in a Lean House of Quality. [Keywords: Lean Six Sigma, Lean QFD, Lean House of Quality (HOQ)]
Industrial Product / QFD Training Experience 2009
Thinking Outside the (corrugated) Box by Michael Harrington, Director of Engineering, Alliance Machine Systems International, Inc., USA; Jack ReVell, Ph.D., USA
We’ve done all right in the past but need to do better going forward… How can we get new designs to the market place that hit critical specification targets? How can we make the lives of our sales force so easy that all they need to do is sit back and take orders because our customers are coming to us rather than us trying to convince them that our products will add value to their processes? We will share our experience in the initial training and applications of QFD and House of Quality (HOQ) matrix approach on a project to design a new industrial product for the corrugated box industry. It reports chronologically on the steps that the company took to obtain training and then implement QFD, including planning Gemba visits, data translation into a Voice of the Customer Table, use of A-1 table, E-series tables based on the 4-phase QFD approach, and noun/verb function analysis. We will then discuss the success we had and also highlight the areas where we can improve on the next implementation, including an insight on how to introduce the HOQ-based QFD into a small company and what pitfalls to avoid. [Keywords: House of Quality (HOQ) QFD, A-1 Table, E-series Tables, 4-phase QFD approach, QFD Training]
Kansei Engineering / Rough Set Theory 2009
Using Rough Set Theory to Efficiently Implement "Choice of Domain” Step in Kansei Engineering by Ali Ahmady, Ph.D. candidate, Wichita State University, USA
Kansei Engineering is a customer-oriented, product development approach which maps customers’ emotional values into product design. Identifying the consistent groups of customers based on their emotion is an essential part of the “choice of domain” step in Kansei engineering. This paper presents a method to identify the most influential users’ characteristics on different customers’ Kansei when there are inconsistencies of preferences within groups of people in a heterogeneous market for a specific product. These users’ attributes can be used as the bases for customer grouping in Kansei Engineering. This paper will introduce the proposed method and its validation through an application to a website example to identify multiple consistent sets of groups of users. [Keywords: Kansei Engineering, Rough Set Theory]
Appendix 2009: Bonus Case Studies
Consumer Encounters: Improving Idea Developments and Concept Optimization by Cathy Rings & Brian Barton, Home Products Division, Rubbermaid Inc.; Glenn Mazur, QFD Institute
Kansei Engineering for Commercial Airplane Interior Architecture by Jeanne Guerin, Payloads Concept Center, The Boeing Company
The Application of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to Design a Course in Total Quality Management (TQM) at the University of Michigan College of Engineering by Glenn Mazur, QFD Institute
The 20th Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-20-6)
Automotive / Build-To-Print Suppliers 2008
Value Based Product Development - Using QFD and AHP to Identify, Prioritize, and Align Key Customer Needs and Business Goals by Chad Johnson, QFD Green Belt®, Six Sigma Master Black Belt, TRW Automotive Braking Division World Headquarters, USA; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute / Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.
In order to distinguish ourselves from the competitive pack, it is becoming increasingly important to seek a deeper understanding of value-driving customer needs during the early stages of product/process development. Although automotive suppliers are often asked to be creative and lean, we still often build strictly to given specifications. We receive data in the old "build to print" paradigm but we are often required to design in a more creative and lean one. To address this dichotomy and break away from the costly design- build-test iterative loop, Quality Function Deployment (QFD) suggests that we seek an understanding of customer's needs beyond the requirements specification and incorporate that understanding into the final product. In this case-study, you will hear how TRW Automotive has utilized QFD and augmented it with the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to develop a working model for project leaders to prioritize and focus their design efforts effectively. This model enables product/process design managers to comprehend, prioritize, and merge the various goals of the business (both corporate and project) with the derived needs of the customer(s). Further, it serves as a central, clarifying centerpiece of project direction and remains fluid - so if priorities are challenged, the model can be used to recalibrate the design focus. [Keywords: automotive QFD, Modern QFD, customer value, key customer needs, business goals, AHP]
Use of QFD & Technology Road Mapping to Develop a Mobile Data Collection System by Dr. Kim Stansfield, Programme Manager, CSC Computer Sciences Ltd., UK; Jeff Cole, Security Architect, CSC Computer Sciences Ltd., UK.
The work described in this paper considers the systems engineering procedures used to select and design a 'mobile data collection' sub-system of a larger Enterprise Application Development project for a UK Government Client. A critical aspect addressed by the sub-project was to identify mobile devices that allow field operators to systematically log material found in-the-field such that all subsequent results of treatment and analysis could be linked to the item in an auditable manner. The customer required that the system integrator identify suitable devices meeting the requirements of the various customer stake-holders, and recommend the best fit, preferably a single device. The focus of this paper is to illustrate the benefits of combining Quality Function Deployment (QFD) processes with the Technology Road Mapping (TRM) process described in the European Industrial Research Management Association (EIRMA) report, Technology Road Mapping Delivering Business Vision. The structured framework incorporating Voice of the Customer (VoC) methods, QFD, TRM and Pugh Matrix allowed the supply team to rapidly identify the priority critical to quality characteristics for the system and its components, and to develop the engineering requirements from which design concepts could be developed. [ Keywords: QFD for defense industry, mobile data collection system, government project, technology road mapping]
Quality Function Deployment at Lockheed Martin MS2 by Jorge Pica, QFD Green Belt®, Deputy Program Manager, Lockheed Martin - MS2, USA; Mark Tracy, Electrical Engineering Manager, MS2 Hi-Team Lead, Lockheed Martin - MS2 ., USA; George W. Chollar, PhD, PE, Statistical Design Institute, LLC, USA
Since its inception, QFD has become a comprehensive tool for keeping customer focus at the forefront of any design activity. Flexible and tailor-able, QFD has also been adopted by our government customers which utilize the method for everything from contractor selection to technology assessment. At Lockheed Martin, QFD has been deployed in multiple areas from technical kick-offs to manufacturing process validation. This presentation will show a variety of QFD implementations at Lockheed Martin MS2, including power supply design efforts as well as several other hardware examples. Lessons learned from these QFD deployment efforts will also be summarized and reviewed. QFD techniques that integrate Parameter Diagrams, Boundary Diagrams and FMEA have now become part of mainstream QFD use. This presentation will also review how Lockheed Martin MS2 utilizes these Design for Six Sigma Tools in an integrated fashion to verify robustness and identify risks in its products and processes. [ Keywords: QFD for defense industry, government projects]
EU State of QFD 2008
QFD in Europe: State-of-the-art and Case Studies (Keynote) by Georg Herzwurm, Ph.D., Chair of Information Systems II, Universität Stuttgart, certified QFD-Architect of QFD Institut Deutschland, Germany; Dipl. Wirt.-Inf. Sixten Schockert, researcher/lecturer, Universität Stuttgart, certified QFD-Architect of QFD Institut Deutschland, Germany
The presentation will provide an overview on the state of the art of QFD in Europe. The first part covers a general analysis of QFD applications in Europe based on a literature review with focus on contributions in quality journals and past national and international QFD symposia. The underlying assumption of this analysis is that there may exist regional distinctions in the dissemination of QFD and in the industries QFD has been applied. The second part of the talk will present selected case studies from various representative industries like the automotive, the software and the service sector. Companies involved in these QFD applications include among others the Volkswagen Group and T- Systems. [Keywords: QFD in EU, European industry, Volkswagen, T-Systems]
Healthcare Insurance / Financial Products 2008
Predicting Future Health Insurance Scenarios using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) by Carey Hepler, QFD Black Belt®, Innovation Director, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida, USA; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute / Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.
Election years breed uncertainty especially when the incumbent president and vice president are not seeking office. The 2008 U.S. presidential elections have additional healthcare related urgencies due to the impending retirement of the Baby Boomers and the shifting winds of global competitiveness. While forecasting the election outcomes is beyond the scope of this paper, just as many businesses do, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida (BCBSF) wants to anticipate how the next administration and congress might set new healthcare policy in order to begin planning for and implementing new processes for their members, providers, and business decision makers. To achieve this, this project used a combination of Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), and other forecasting tools to look at possible 2008 election and policy outcomes and what new opportunities might be created to service both their traditional members as well as the uninsured in the State of Florida. The identified scenarios can be used to map and prioritize different market segments, formulate key customer needs into value propositions, determine strengths and weaknesses in their current competencies and capabilities, and then initiate service quality projects to begin improving those areas where customers will need them most. Several quality methodologies have been used to design successful products. [ Keywords: healthcare, health insurance / financial product development, market projection, Modern QFD, AHP]
Using QFD to Understand, Prioritize, and Develop Solutions to Address the Future Needs of Customers by Kathy Hines, QFD Black Belt®, Innovation Leader, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida, USA; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute / Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.
As the U.S. health insurance model continues to evolve, with increasing financial responsibility falling on the consumer, the opportunities for new and different interactions with the health insurance company are sure to follow. This project utilized the QFD methodology to anticipate the changing needs of consumers and how service might evolve. The requirements for the project included: Understanding the future-state of the industry; Anticipating and prioritizing future member needs as a result of new industry pressures; Developing a well defined goal for the service organization; Identifying solutions that target member needs; Validating solutions from the member's perspective; Selecting the best solution(s) given benefits and constraints; and Implementing solutions that are most valuable to the member and continue to differentiate BCBSF. [Keywords: healthcare, health insurance / financial product development, market projection, Modern QFD, AHP]
Shipping Industry 2008
Customer-driven Process Improvement in a Shipowner Company: Modern QFD Approach by Aysun Kapucugil Ikiz, QFD Green Belt®, Research Assistant, Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey; Guzin Ozdagoglu, Research Assistant, Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey
Business operations can be broken down into development phases which require multiple business functions and processes to make a new product or service a reality. Success in one customer-driven design process is not sufficient unless every other phase of the operations is analyzed from a customer expectations point of view. That way, successful process can take root within an organization. Quality Function Deployment (QFD), a known requirements analysis technique for service/product design, can be also useful for redesign or reengineering business operations and processes. The main scope of this study is to analyze the operations of a commercial shipping line company to identify improvement opportunities. This paper reports a detailed requirements model of the operation process and improvement areas based on a 'gemba' analysis of internal customers and critical incident reports by external customers. [Keywords: process improvement, requirement analysis, Modern QFD, shipping industry]
Software & IT 2008
Getting AHEAD: Applying AHP for Software Technology Evaluations by Karen Smiley, QFD Black Belt®, Principal Consulting Software Engineer; Elizabeth Kielczewski; and Qingfeng He, ABB Corporate Research, USA
Evaluations of software technologies and components can be complicated, and are easily influenced by acknowledged or latent technology biases. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a natural choice for neutralizing these biases, and bringing greater objectivity to the evaluations. This paper reports on an industrial case study for software technology evaluation which complemented the Software Engineering Institute's (SEI) Attribute-Driven Design (ADD) technique by applying AHP for importance ratings and for comparing the prototype implementations. We present our Attribute Hierarchy-based Evaluation of Architectural Designs (AHEAD) methodology, our findings, and our analysis of the evaluation. This project is a pilot application of Modern QFD in the Requirements Engineering research led by a provisional QFD Black Belt®. [Keywords: software architecture, AHP, Modern QFD, technology evaluations]
Appendix: Bonus Case Studies 2008
QFD to Direct Value Engineering in the Design of a Braking System by Jim Dimsey, Hayes Brake, USA, et. al.
Future Combat System Concept Development: Integrating Service and Product Requirements in QFD by Kirk Kirkpatrick, Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control; Maj. Shel Jones, US Army; Glenn Mazur, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.
Defining Customer Needs for Brand New Products: QFD for Unprecedented Software Development by Richard Zultner, Zultner & Company, USA
QFD Addresses The Role of NATO Tactical Aircraft by Suzanne Bergman, McDonnell Douglass Corporation, USA
The 19th Symposium on QFD & 13th International Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-19-2)
Replacing Pugh Concept Selection with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) by Richard Z ultner, QFD Red Belt® and Six Sigma Master Black Belt, QFD Institute / Zultner & Company.
AHP contains two phases: prioritization of criteria, and prioritization of alternatives using those criteria (the "ratings method"). This second phase is less discussed in QFD circles, but can be used to enhance Stuart Pugh's matrices into an even more powerful approach to technology concept selection. This tutorial will introduce the basics of both AHP and Pugh Concept Selection, and present the four fundamental types of selection criteria (bigger is better, smaller is better, absolute judgment, and relative judgment), as well as hands-on practice with the cross-tabulation techniques used for enhanced "super Pugh" concept selection. An MS Excel template will be provided, so bring your laptop.
General Theory of Innovation to Design a Superior Corporate Strategy by Greg Yezersky, President, Institute of Professional Innovators.
The history of business shows that companies with superior strategies usually beat those who compete on technological strength alone. Another side of business history reveals that the average longevity of Fortune 500 companies is only 40 to 50 years. Why is business success so random? Why can't more companies realize the power of strategy and come up with a successful one? Why can't former leaders employ a new strategy and repeat success more often? What is the connection between strategy and innovation? Is there a robust process to engineer powerful strategies on demand? How can we come up with the right strategies? If we can identify the formula for the science of innovation, we will be able to control the process and create better strategies on demand. The General Theory of Innovation (GTI) is just such a theory that can be used for gaining control over the process of innovation.
The Quality Revolution by Glenn Mazur, Executive Director, QFD Institute and International Council for QFD.
This keynote discusses how technological advancements led to improved product quality and choice, and how this new found choice of goods inevitably led to a demand for freedom of choice in all aspects of life. It shows the revolutionary path from industrial revolution to to consumer revolution to lifestyle and political revolutions. QFD is about the Voice of the Customer. Once unleashed, this voice continues to demand more and more from the marketplace and beyond. Those who supply goods, services, and ideas will see that when the customer wins, we all win.
QFD and Knowledge Management: QFD Application on the Development of a Finger Vein Authentication Device by Akao Yoji, Ph.D., Yamagata University, Japan.
Founder of QFD methodology, Dr. Yoji Akao will present a case study on the development of a new finger vein authentication device using the state-of-art near-infrared light transmission technology by Hitachi Omron Terminal Solutions, Ltd. QFD and Knowledge Management were applied to understand the customer needs of a medical application. And then, this knowledge was used to develop a brand new product for the financial and security industries, enabling the company to enter the new markets successfully. The presentation will show the entire flow of the QFD project, how knowledge management fits into the process, as well as new technology deployment.
One of the best decision-making methods available today, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a mathematically rigorous and yet relatively easy to use multi-criteria prioritization method that has become an integral part of Modern QFD. Dr. Thomas Saaty, Ph.D., renowned architect of AHP, discusses in this keynote the fundamentals of AHP through colorful application examples ranging from estimating the cereal industry market share and dominance of various drinks in the U.S. to predicting the outcome of a world chess championship match (Karpov-Korchnoi match) and U.S. presidential elections (1980: Carter-Reagan; 1992 Perot-Bush-Clinton).
Development of Highly Reliable Valves for H-IIA Rocket by K. Kojima, M. Matsuda, and K. Yoshikawa of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Japan; H. Nanri, K. Okita, and M. Fukuoka of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan; Yoji Akao, Ph.D., Asahi University, Japan.
H-IIA rocket is a Japanese main launch vehicle for carrying four tons of payloads into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit at an altitude of some 36,000 kilometers. This paper reports a joint project by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency where QFD methods were used to improve reliability of the H-IIA rocket valve design which led to the development of a new model. The presentation will show the QFD approaches, development process for this high reliability valve, and the project accomplishments.
AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) 2007
The Many Faces of AHP - How to use AHP with Different Audiences for Maximum Results by Carey Hepler, QFD Black Belt®, Innovation Director, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida, USA; Glenn Mazur, JBC / QFD Institute
Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida (BCBSF) is the oldest and most respected health insurance organization in the State of Florida. This paper will discuss thee company's use of Analytic Hierarchy Processing (AHP) in terms of audience and technology delivery, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each of the technologies when working with our constituent groups. [Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP); healthcare insurance planning; insurance / financial product development; Modern QFD]
Business Process 2007
QFD for Effective Business Design by Hideaki Haraga, Business Development Center, Konica Minolta Technology Center, Inc., Japan
This paper introduces an example of business function deployment in which expectations and business functions are extracted from the project targets and goals by using a relational diagram. An application method is proposed as a business management tool in which progress is recorded in a matrix of business functions and expectations. [Keywords: business function; expectations; business function deployment; relational diagram; business management tool]
Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) / Public Projects 2007
Context Sensitive Solutions: The Application of QFD for Developing Public Transportation Projects in the U.S. by Theodore Hopwood II, P.E., Kentucky Transportation Center, University of Kentucky, USA; Glenn H. Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, The QFD Institute, USA
For many years, the selection of transportation routes, design of roadway features, etc. were based mostly on engineering considerations. QFD has developed since the 1960s a powerful tool set for new product development that enables engineers to listen to the Voice of the Customer and translate the most important needs into design requirements and then assure their quality in the resulting goods and services. This paper will show how QFD tools can be adapted for Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) and Design in road building and other large projects. [Keywords: Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) and QFD; community Voice of the Customers (VoC); sustainable development; QFD for transportation and civil engineering projects; QFD for public projects; Modern QFD]
Education / Vocational Training 2007
Application of QFD in Engineering Education: Assurance of Learning Outcomes Fulfillment by Zbigniew Prusak, Ph. D., Central Connecticut State University, USA
Principles of QFD used in assessment of engineering students’ activities during classroom and laboratory instruction. Twenty two types of student activities were analyzed for their contribution toward fulfillment of thirty learning outcomes. Each type of student activity was also assessed in terms of its level according to Bloom’s taxonomy in senior level courses in engineering design and manufacturing processes. Design projects, concept generation, individual formal presentations and forensic studies proved to be the most universal activities, developing a wide range of professional skills. [Keywords: engineering education; learning outcomes; Bloom’s Taxonomy; engineering design]
Application of QFD to Curriculum Planning of Vocational Education by Catherine Y. P. Chan, QFD Green Belt®; Gail Taylor; and W. C. Ip of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
Winner of 2007 Akao Scholarship for QFD. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for applying QFD to curriculum planning for vocational education. A study on the content planning of an in-house staff development program illustrates the application method, which can be useful to vocational education institutions in Hong Kong and elsewhere. [Keywords: QFD; vocational education; course development; curriculum design; Modern QFD techniques; AHP]
Design of a Methodology to Elaborate Curriculo CIM of the Industrial Engineer in Spain, Based on QFD by Isabel Melina Balderrama Durán, Institut Quimic de Sarria, Spain / Bolivia
Developing a methodology that will allow construction of industrial engineering curriculum that teaches Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) technology requires the support of methods like QFD and other tools such as Delphi, Diagrams of Affinity, Analysis of Systematization of the hierarchy, etc. This research uses QFD and Delphi methods to design a CIM curriculum, translating industry requirements into design characteristics of an online course. [Keywords: Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM); Delphi method; QFD; industrial engineering curriculum design]
Using QFD to Involve All Employees in the Corporate Innovation Process by Kathy Hines, QFD Black Belt®, Innovation Leader, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida, USA; Glenn Mazur, JBC / QFD Institute
With competition at an all time high, more and more companies are seeking ways to capture that next "big" idea, including Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida (BCBSF) which currently has over 9,000 employees, each with an idea on how the company can increase membership, reduce costs, differentiate products and services from our competitors and expand our distribution channel. Random idea creations, however, can become a drag on resources and lead to disappointment among those whose ideas are not utilized. When the Voice of the Customer is used to drive idea creation and selection process, then the diversity of our internal resources can be fully harnessed. [Keywords: QFD application; innovation process; employee Voice of the Customer (VoC), QFD for diversity; healthcare insurance industry; Modern QFD]
Kano Model and QFD 2007
QFD Kano Model for Designing College Women's Dormitory by Yoji Akao, Ph.D., Japan
This paper reports using the Kano Model to find out how various functions and features of a dorm facility are being perceived differently by the student residents and their parents and how this finding can be used in the planning stage of a QFD project. Dr. Yoji Akao, Ph.D., founder of QFD, in presenting this research by his students, discusses how you can integrate QFD and the Kano Model to create customer delights in your product and service. [Keywords: QFD and Kano Model; exciting quality; facility design]
Lifecycle of Product 2007
Fusion of QFD and PLM by Tadao Nakamura, Dassault Systemes K.K., Japan
This paper introduces the fusion of QFD and PLM to aim the smooth and quick digital simulation in the concept stage of the product development. At first, PDM to manage the criteria and standard of various areas made by QFD, then, 3D-CAD simulates various matters with using the specified and quantitative information from PDM seamlessly. [Keywords: Product Lifecycle Management (PLM)]
Applying Quality Function Deployment to the Product Life Cycle of an Aluminum Wheel Project by Javaid Cheema, VP-QA, Molex Interconnect Inc. and Muhammad I. Hussain, Sr. Mfg. Engineer, General Motors, USA
This study was based on an actual project for the design, development, production, and aftermarket service management of a cast aluminum wheel program for a Japanese OEM customer. Use of QFD as a product quality management is no more new to western companies but the unique fact about this project was the uniform application of QFD methodology to all stages of a product life cycle. This paper provides a step by step explanation of every stage of project with critical analyses of how QFD methodology can help in making sound decisions. Keywords: VOC, Product Life Cycle (PLC), Kako Tora, Pyramid of Human Needs, Kano’s Model of Customer Satisfaction, Design Review Based on Failure Modes (DRBFM), TQM, BPR, Transactional Six Sigma (TSS), Balanced Scorecard, Customer Needs Prioritization Matrix, Kiken Yochi, Nemawashi]
Requirements for Structuring of Logistic Demands in the Run-up to QFD by A. Crostack, Ph.D., Robert Refflinghaus, Ph.D., Nadine Schlueter, and Katharina Noll of University of Dortmund, Germany
In order to develop a customer-oriented logistic facility, the marketing research and developer have to work together. They must take into consideration such requirements as the whole life-cycle identified through market research, in order to achieve optimum in both facility and service. This paper reports a study, conducted by the University of Dortmund Chair of Quality, that aimed to develop a procedure for structuring, analyzing, and displaying unsystematic requirements into a QFD structure in the development of such logistic facility. [Keywords: requirements; logistics; structure; QFD]
Methods Integration 2007
Design of the Product Development Process in Cooperation with QFD, TRIZ and Taguchi Method (II) by Hiroyuki Okamoto, RICOH Engineering Process Innovation Center, Japan; Yoshiharu Isaka, IDEA Inc., Japan; Yukio Miyamura, SANYO Electric Evolution PJ Management Gr., Japan; Masaaki Todoroki, Q-teck consulting Co., Ltd., Japan
This paper reports the second phase of a joint research which was first reported at 2006 International Symposium in Tokyo. This paper describes an integration flow illustrating the authors' concept for fusing QFD, TRIZ, and Taguchi method by the "function" of a product, a common thread identified among the three techniques, and a hypothetical case study using this technique. [Keywords: integration of QFD, TRIZ, and Taguchi]
A Framework of e7-QFD as the 3rd Generation QFD in Japan by Kazushi Nagai and Tadashi Ohfuji of Tamagawa University, Japan; Kei Inayoshi, Asahi University, Japan
At the 11th and 12th International Symposium on QFD, the authors proposed a new framework called e7-QFD (evolution 7-QFD) which unites QFD with new quality control tools such as statistical method, strategy plan, and Taguchi method. Seven techniques had been independently treated in the proposed e7-QFD method so far. This paper will report this continuing research and explains the causal relationships of the techniques as well as systematization of e7-QFD. [Keywords: QFD; quality assurance; Taguchi method; TRIZ; Blue Ocean strategy; sustainable growth; QFD research]
QA-QFD — The making method in the Quality Table which can be Utilized by Masaaki Todoroki, Consultant, Q-tech Consulting, Co. Ltd., Japan
In QFD, the Quality Table is an important tool. However, misuse and misconstruction of this table are not unusual, often due to inadequate understanding of the required quality and customers. This paper and presentation will explain how to correctly make the Japanese Quality Table and better utilize it in product development. [Keywords: QFD; QA; product development]
Process Industry 2007
Multiple Progression QFD: A Case Study of Cooking Product Functionality at Arla Foods by Thomas Lager, B&L Innovation AB (blinab), Sweden; Åsa Kjell, Project Manager Innovation, Arla Foods, Sweden
This paper reports a project at Arla Foods, the largest dairy company in Europe. The objective was to advance knowledge of how the production process and ingredients could influence the cooking functionality of a certain dairy product and how to measure such product properties, so that this knowledge could be used in subsequent product developments/improvements. QFD methodology was used to guide and structure the information-gathering processes and to link individual sub-project information. A new lean QFD project management approach which the authors developed for process industry and tested will be discussed.[ Keywords: Quality Function Deployment (QFD); multiple progression QFD; process industry; Arla Foods; product development]
Software & IT 2007
An Application of 'System’s Near Decomposition' to Software Structure Analysis by 'T2T' Tool for QFD by A. Amemiya; T. Kuroda; M. Yoshikawa; Y. Watanabe, Ph.D.; H. Shindo, Ph.D. of University of Yamanashi, Japan; Y. Anang, Sync-Information System Co., Japan
Using "Object-Oriented Design" concept, a software tool for QFD can be described as a table made of "function" and "component" viewpoints in the integrated software development environment "Delphi". Authors applied the processes of nearly decomposing a system to the QFD's Quality Table by using "QM3 (Quantification Method III)" in order to decrease the complexity. As the result, the structure of the software tool became more understandable and some design problems have been identified, leading to a re-design of the software tool structure and better design. [Keywords: system's near decomposition; QFD tool; software structure analysis; QFD research]
IT Service Deployment by Wolfram Pietsch, Ph.D., Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Germany
If IT is reduced to a fundamental technical commodity like a power supply, its business value will degrade ('IT doesn't matter'). In order to survive the outsourcing battle, full potential IT service must shift their focus to the business requirements and needs of their customers. This paper shows how a QFD framework can be utilized in the IT business in order to develop customer-focused products and services encompassing customer requirements, performance criteria, and functions to process improvements. [Keywords: Service Management; IT Service Level Agreement (SLA); Service QFD]
QFD-based Method to Choose a Suitable CAQ-system by Robert Refflinghaus, Ph.D., University of Dortmund, Germany
Choosing a suitable Computer Aided Quality (CAQ) system is an important decision for an enterprise. It requires high investments in costs, time and manpower, and therefore, a sound and rational decision process is very important. To support this, we have developed a QFD-based instrument for selecting a CAQ-system. The aim of this instrument is to reduce the choice of CAQ-suppliers from about 100 to three to five. [Keywords: Computer-aided Quality (CAQ) system; vendor selection]
QFD in the Development of a WIKI: A QFD-WIKI by Georg Herzwurm, Ph.D. and Sixten Schockert of Universität Stuttgart, Germany
A wiki is a web based software which allows all visitors of a website to change its content by editing the site online in a web browser. With this key capability a wiki is an easy to use platform for collaborative working on hypertexts. This paper is about the development of a wiki on QFD and all its aspects as the content of the website. The so called QFD-Wiki is not only on QFD, it is also developed using QFD as the product planning method. [Keywords: WIKI; QFD Application; QFD Knowledge Distribution; QFD Community Building]
Route of the Quality Model: Translating the Voice of the Customer in Process Improvement by Edmundo Eutrópio Coelho de Souza, Telemar Norte Leste S/A, Brazil; Rosangela Maria Pereira Catunda, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Brazil; Claudia Massena Barbara, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Brazil
This paper presents the Telemar Norte Leste – TNL Route of the Quality model, describing the methodology, step by step application process, and the main results achieved. The Route of the Quality is a QFD-based methodology developed to implement actions for improving customer-perceived quality. It is followed by surveys to measure the customer satisfaction and link the important indicators to the customer focus, strategic objectives of the company, regulatory frameworks, and establishment of goals that portray the reality of the company. [Keywords: Quality; Route of the Quality; Process Improvement; Voice of the Customer (VoC); Telecom Industry]
The Improvement of Telecom Service Quality Based on QFD by Wei Xiong and Jun Xia, ZheJiang University School of Management, China
This paper proposes application of QFD-based Telecom Service Quality Improvement Model (TSQIM) to Chinese telecommunication service. TSQIM analyzes service requirements of telecom customers and translates these requirements into telecom quality characteristics through use of HOQ (House of Quality); a series of HOQs can be used to design an optimization program for the network quality, to improve telecom service and increase customer satisfaction. The model has been applied to the PHS network business of Lishui Telecom Company. [Keywords: customer satisfaction (CS); Quality Function Deployment (QFD); telecom service; quality improvement]
The 18th Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-18-4)
Build-to-print / Hardware 2006
Using a Spec Document, the Customer Voice Table, and a QFD Matrix to Generate a CTQ (Critical to Quality) List by Bruce White, Staff Statistician, QFD Black Belt®, Imation, USA
When all you have to work with is a large specification document and you need to identify what specs are truly important to the customer, the techniques outlined in this paper will help you. Imation is a leading memory device manufacturer. This presentation will report how they were able to identify from specs, a Critical to Quality List (CTQ), the most important, measurable characteristics of the finished product that are strongly linked to customer requirements. The technique involving the Modern QFD and a matrix can be very useful for any OEM supplier as well as internal customers. [Keywords: Critical to Quality List (CTQ), Customer Voice Table, QFD matrix, Design to Spec, Importance Prioritization, Modern QFD]
Healthcare / Insurance 2006
Challenges in Rapid Deployment of New Services in Healthcare by Michael Scutero, Six Sigma Master Black Belt, Quest Diagnostics Inc., USA; Sonja Draganic, Six Sigma Black Belt, Quest Diagnostics Inc., USA; and Angela Rylsky, Six Sigma Black Belt of Quest Diagnostics Inc., USA
Through careful application of QFD in the early phases of a DFSS activity, we show solutions to customer queuing problems. The problem occurs in service centers (PSC) that are responsible for patient blood draws and specimen collection. Patient flow through PSC sites, when disrupted, often results in delays and dissatisfaction. The new and improved services generated include personnel redeployments, customer routing, customer flow regulators, supply chain efforts and improved transportation. In addition, we uncover needs & solutions for implementation of these new services to over 40 geographically separated PSC sites in a relatively short time. This paper reports Project Management activity (PM), new product introduction (NPI), Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), QFD deliverables, QFD application, and case study success. [Keywords: Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), Healthcare QFD, Patient Flow Management, Turn Management, Patient Service Centers (PSC)]
Finding Customer Delights Using QFD by Carey Hepler, QFD Black Belt®, Integrated Market Intelligence, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida, USA; and Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd., USA
Changes in market demographics and the regulatory environment are creating many new opportunities for health-care and related organizations. As the oldest and most respected health insurance organization in Florida, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida (BCBSF) strives to stay ahead of the competition by quickly responding to these changes with new and improved insurance and health maintenance products. Recently, we have begun to use QFD to discover the unspoken customer needs for an underserved portion of our population. QFD has allowed us to convert their needs into new products, services, and features to delight and attract new customers as well as retain current customers. This paper describes some of the new opportunities we are facing, and shows step by step how we are addressing them by understanding the Voice of the Customer and innovating and implementing exciting solutions. [Keywords: Healthcare QFD, Health Insurance, Health Maintenance Products, Voice of the Customer (VOC), Unspoken Customer Needs, Healthcare Product Development, Customer Retention, Exciting Quality, Delightful Quality, Kano Model, Modern QFD]
Innovation Methods 2006
Controlling Innovation as a Basis for Continuous Success - An Executive Overview of Systemology by Greg Yezersky, President, Institute of Professional Innovators, USA
The underlying principles of the Russian born TRIZ have been evolved into a General Theory of Innovation (GTI) for non-manufacturing organizations and general business management. This paper introduces the General Theory of Innovation (GTI), an evolutionary development of TRIZ for non-manufacturing organizations and general business management, and how to control the innovation process and outcomes by applying GTI to business processes, just as TRIZ has done to manufacturing and engineering problems. [Keywords : Innovation Process, Systemology, System Evolution, Business Process, TRIZ]
New Kano Method 2006
Kano Model: The Latest Developments by Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Executive Director, QFD Institute, Executive Director, International Council for QFD; Richard Zultner, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute, USA
The Kano model is often cited by experts in quality, design, and marketing. And yet, it is one of the topics that are often misunderstood. What is the historical background of this concept? Are there methods that product developers and marketers can apply beyond the visually-interesting diagram? What is the relationship between QFD and Kano's model, and how it can be integrated into QFD? What should QFD practitioners know about applying this in their project? This paper examines the Kano Model, including the latest developments as presented in the October 2006 master class taught by Dr. Kano himself, and introduces new application methods and models that are currently being developed by the QFD Institute through its on-going international research. [Keywords: New Kano Model, Kano Diagram, Exciting Quality, Expected Quality, QFD]
Service B2B 2006
Pair-wise House of Quality (HoQ) Matrices: Turning poor perception to customer satisfaction by Rituparna Maji, Six Sigma Black Belt, Sr. Quality Consultant, Wipro Technologies, India
During a review of a project for database production support in a financial services company, the customer expressed unhappiness about ‘processes being loose, not being hands-free’ and a host of other issues. Lacking clear direction from the customer, it became difficult for the team to arrive at any tangible actions. A pair of House of Quality (HoQ) matrices were made, one representing the current level of performance and the other reflecting the corresponding desired level — as peceived and generated by the team as if the customer's voice. This method can be used to perform a gap assessment of "expected vs. actual' in any kind of an environment where the pain area spreads across multiple aspects of service delivery and/or there is a dearth/absence of data. [Keywords: House of Quality (HoQ), DBA (Database administrator), B2B IT Service, Gap Analysis, Expected Quality]
Simulation of Methods 2006
An Analysis of Methods for Prioritizing Design Characteristics in Quality Function Deployment by Marcus J. McLeese, Maintenance Supervisor, Coca-Cola Enterprises, Alsip Operations, USA; and Bruce DeRuntz, Ph.D., Southern Illinois University Carbondale, USA
Practitioners of traditional QFD often choose between three popular methods for ranking design characteristics in the House of Quality: Simple Additive Weighting; Modified Simple Additive Weighting; and Technique of Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution. In this research, these three methods were simulated and statistically tested to identify whether a significant difference existed between the outcomes and the pros and cons associated with each. [Keywords: Prioritization methods, House of Quality, Simple Additive Weighting, Modified Simple Additive Weighting, Order Preference, Traditional QFD]
Vocational Training 2006
QFD-based Curriculum Planning for Vocational Education by Catherine Y. P. Chan, QFD Green Belt®, Institute of Textiles & Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
Originally set up by the government in the “Golden Age” of manufacturing, the vocational education institutions in Hong Kong are struggling to adapt to the profound changes brought by today's global market. This paper discusses how QFD enables a paradigm shift in vocational education and how Modern QFD tools can be applied to college curriculum design. It coveres concept, system, tools and the mechanism of incorporating Modern QFD into curriculum planning, as well as a pilot study using Blitz® QFD, a Customer Voice Table for identifying the job needs of the clothing industry, Affinity Diagram, Customer Needs Hierarchy table, and Maximum Value Table. [Keywords: Vocational Education, Demanded Quality Deployment Chart, Quality Elements Deployment Chart, Modern QFD for Education]
Appendix I: Bonus Case Studies 2006
QFD Applications in Health Care and Quality of Work Life by Glenn H. Mazur, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd., USA.; Jeff Gibson, Baptist Health System, Birmingham, Alabama, USA; Bruce Harries, TELUS Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Quality Function Deployment for a Medical Device by Glenn Mazur, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.
Making The Neon Fun To Drive by J. E. Fernandez; J. L. Chamberlin; E. G. Kramer; J. H. Broomall; H. A. Rori; R. L Begley, Small Car Platform Engineering, Chrysler Corporation
The Application of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) To Design a Course in Total Quality Management (TQM) at The University of Michigan College of Engineering by Glenn H. Mazur, Adjunct Lecturer, The University of Michigan College of Engineering, Executive Director, QFD Institute, U.S.A.
Appendix II: Abstracts of Papers from Symposia on QFD 1989-2005