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All Abstracts 1989–2019

This page lists the abstracts of all papers that have been presented at the QFD Institute's Symposium on QFD since 1989 to date, including the papers from the International Symposium on QFD (ISQFD) hosted in the U.S.

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2019: The 25th International Symposium on QFD (ISQFD'19-Boise) and The 28th North American Symposium on QFD
ISBN 1-889477-29-X
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QFD For Business Transformation

Dr. Kim Stansfield, QFD Black Belt®, 2016 Akao Prize® Recipient, University of Warwick, UK; Steve Dimelow, QFD Black Belt®, QuEST Global Engineering Services , UK; John Fraser, QFD Black Belt®, Protean Electric, UK

To remain sustainable in the long term, an organization needs to be able to systematically and rapidly adapt/transform its products, services, business models, resources and enterprise infrastructure in response to the changing business environment. To accomplish this in a coordinated manner, the business needs to be considered as a socio-technical system operating within a very complex and highly dynamic environment. More often than not, the changes in market expectations and technological capabilities demand transformation across multiple organizations in integrated supply chains, where some businesses will be software intensive businesses, while others focused on physical offerings. These changes are being accelerated with the emergence of Internet of Things and Industry 4.0 developments and capabilities. This tutorial introduced the principles and relationships between Modern QFD and business transformation planning and development for businesses. The tutorial will reference relevant sections in the new ISO 16355 standard for QFD, and give attendees exercises to connect the principles and key methods, particularly Hoshin Kanri, the initial analytic stages of QFD, and prioritization and methods like the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The Tutorial consisted of approximately 1 hour of lecturing and 1 hour of exercises using a case study from ‘Space logistics systems’ scenario.

Management Tools 2019

Net Promoter System to Understand Overall Customer Experience at UnitedHealth Group®

Carey Hepler, QFD Black Belt®, 2010 Akao Prize® Recipient, NPS Champion, UnitedHealth Group® USA

UnitedHealth Group® also has adopted the Net Promoter System (“NPS”) to help us understand the overall experience we are giving our customers. This presentation looks at the intersection of NPS and QFD at UnitedHealth Group® where NPS is a sound measuring stick, but QFD is needed to successfully identify and fully implement meaningful systemic change to improve the NPS scores. NPS helps us see what we are doing well, what we could do better, and where we should innovate. It shows us how every decision we make affects others — customers and fellow employees alike. Improving Net Promoter Scores (the metric of success within the system) indicates we listen, respond, and fulfill expectations not as we define them, but as customers define them. This presentation detailed the rigorous Net Promoter System focused on raising quality, delivering value, and simplifying the health care experience for customers and care providers across the Enterprise with

A case study based on a well-received smoking cessation program was demonstrated.

A Framework of “Use” for QFD

Catherine Y.P. Chan, Ph.D., QFD Black Belt®, 2019 Akao Prize® Recipient, President, HONG KONG Quality Function Deployment Association; Glenn H. Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, 1998 Akao Prize® Recipient, QFD Institute USA

The awareness of social responsibility and sustainability is increasingly becoming a new force that drives business development. This paper is going to present a "use" framework of QFD, how QFD can be useful to businesses that have embraced the new awareness and are trying to incorporate social responsibility and sustainability into their business practices and new product development. In the 1950s, quality guru Dr. Juran set forth his definition of quality as “fitness for use.” In order to offer greater assistance on achieving this goal of "fitness for use" for sustainability, the author will present different aspects of use and types of customer, how a supplier/vendor can use such information as a guideline to satisfy their customer's goals for sustainability, and where to apply QFD for managing their product development efforts.

AHP and QFD / Capital Project 2019

QFD Applied to Infrastructure Capital Project Planning

James Devlin, QFD Black Belt®, Navis Solutions, LLC, USA

According to the World Economic Forum, the world will face a US$15 trillion infrastructure gap by 2040. It will take massive investment in infrastructure capital projects to address the gap. Capital project planning and decision-making often struggles with difficult decisions about what gets funded fully, partially, postponed, or abandoned. If the project is government related, political influences can also play a role. Stakeholders demand fairness and transparency and this requires acquiring information and facts from what may still be fuzzy projections, depending on how far in the future the projects are to be initiated or completed. Fact-finding can benefit from two proven methodologies -- Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) -- to improve both the quality and acceptance of the capital project portfolio decisions made. This paper will look at the application of QFD in the definition of infrastructure capital projects, the use of Hoshin Kanri in the definition of strategic imperatives, and the application of the AHP to the prioritization of infrastructure capital projects.

Technology / IT / Software 2019

Development of an Experimental Design for QFD-guided Requirement Validations of Virtual Prototypes

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Robert Refflinghaus, Dept of Quality & Process Mgmt, University of Kassel, GERMANY;: Lena Blackert M.Sc., University of Kassel, GERMANY; Christian Esser M.Sc., University of Kassel, GERMANY

When newly developed products do not meet the customer’s needs, the problem can be often rooted down to an inadequate customer requirements management due to incomplete or misinterpreted requirements. One common method to prevent this from happening is Quality Function Deployment (QFD), which helps to translate customer requirements into product features. Prototype validation is another method, but it tends to happens at a very late stage of the product development process, leading to expensive and time-consuming changes. This research proposes a new approach that aims at integrating virtual prototypes into customer requirements validation, enabling system engineers to iteratively ensure the development stages of the QFD. Virtual prototyping provides an opportunity to simulate product characteristics and functions at an early development stage through eye tracking based visual perception and overall cognitive impression of the product features on the testers. This presentation will discuss feasibility of virtual prototype tests, comparative experiments in virtual vs. real prototypes, eye-tracking analysis, and theoretical context model, through the example of coffee machine designs.

Symptom Analysis of Collaborative Software and Design Approach

Takahiro Yamamoto, QFD Green Belt®, Engineering QA, Wacom, Co., Ltd., JAPAN

Collaborative software deploys both the components and the bill of material (BOM) of the products. It visualizes the relationships and group-sharing while maintaining consistency. Due to these characteristics, collaborative software can become a complex system because it must deal with various 3D CAD and distributed databases. In order to effectively carry out the quality assurance needed to ensure the availability and safety of both the specification and the operation, it is important to take a systematic design approach toward the invisible issues concerning both work flow and specification, in addition to individual analytic approach to the problems that have occurred. In this paper, the author from Wacom, the designer and manufacturer specializing in interactive graphics tablets and related products, will detail the management of evaluation policy, the analysis of the failure that occurred and the method of reflection to the test scenario. The presentation will also discuss the role of design approach in both improvement of productivity and the realization of sustainable organization that can innovate.

A Proposal to Reliability Deployment of Embedded Software Systems Adopting the STAMP Model in QFD

Yoshimichi Watanabe, Ph.D., 2013 Akao Prize® Recipient, Associate Professor, Computer Science and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, JAPAN; Masakazu Takahashi, Ph.D., Professor, University of Yamanashi, Software Engineering & Safety, JAPAN

This research proposes a method to design software reliability by incorporating the STAMP (Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Process) model and the QFD. By fusing the QFD Reliability Development and STPA (System Theoretic Process Analysis), it is possible to comprehensively and logically identify potential accidents that should never occur. In the design of products requiring high reliability such as embedded software systems, the matters relating to the combination of software and hardware greatly affect reliability. It is very important to analyze the accidents that could result from the interactions and combinations of various components. The proposed method aims to ensure reliability by conducting QFD, clarifying the potential accidents and hazards which must never occur, preparing the scenario through STPA and making more effective measures against the critical failures.

Mining the latent information by the Affinity Diagram Method Quantificated [sic] by QM3

Teruyki Koike, Yamanashi Research Institute/Univ of Yamanashi, JAPAN

The quality table in the classical Japanese QFD approach was composed using the KJTM like method or affinity diagram method. The author proposes a new quantification method for the quality table. An example of mining latent information is illustrated by capture-recapture method.

Modern QFD vs Classsic QFD / Flexible Automation 2019

Enhancing Quality Assured Design of Flexible Automation of A Complex Composite Component Manufacturing System Using Classic and Modern QFD Approaches

Dr. Kim Stansfield, QFD Black Belt®, 2016 Akao Prize® Recipient, University of Warwick, UK: Steve Dimelow, QFD Black Belt®, QuEST Global Engineering Services, UK: John Fraser, QFD Black Belt®, Protean Electric, UK

A BRITE EurAM European funded research project run between 1990 and 1992 to develop quality assured, flexible automated manufacturing and composite component design system, applied classical QFD approaches to align the designs to key business goals and stakeholder needs. The methods used included process mapping, needs capture and prioritisation using pairwise comparison, the 1st QFD House of Quality (HoQ) matrix or Customer Needs – Functional Requirements matrix, QFD Functional Requirements – Function matrix, process capability studies, design and process FMEA, and the concept evaluation and convergence (Pugh Matrix). This presentation discusses how modern QFD approaches could have benefitted this project and would have enhanced the quality focus and project delivery of the collaborative development of the different design and manufacturing modules that were developed. It also considers how classical and modern QFD approaches can be used in combination to strengthen the reuse of quality knowledge in complex projects and propose an integrated QFD and design framework.

ISO 16355 / Updating Legacy Practices 2019

German Interpretation and Dissemination of ISO 16355

Prof. Dr. Wolfram Pietsch, 2009 Akao Prize® Recipient, QFD-Institut Deutschland / Aachen University of Applied Sciences, GERMANY

The new ISO Norm 16355 provides an extensive reference for product development methods in general and QFD methods specifically, describing the state-of-the-art best practices worldwide. However it is not devised for the harmonisation of various legacy methods and practices. This presentation discussed how German QFD best practices shall be (re-) interpreted in order to upgrade and harmonise the traditional German QFD practices to the new ISO 16355 standard. The resulting German interpretation of ISO 16355 will serve as a cornerstone for re-launching the German QFD certification programme and for a wider dissemination of QFD. Although the issues raised in this paper reflect German practices in general, no doubt, many of them are global. Thus, this presentation will be useful to anyone who previously learned the classical House of Quality and might not be aware of the pitfalls and risks of forcing the HoQ approach in today's projects. The presentation will be also useful to the new practitioners who should understand the full power of current best practice in compliance with the new ISO 16355.

Teaching QFD / Higher Education 2019

Teaching QFD: Understand How to Cause Good Quality!

Dr. Sixten Schockert, Ph.D., Akao Prize® Recipient 2016, German QFD-Architect # 1857, Researcher / Lecturer - University Stuttgart, Chair of Information Systems II, GERMANY; Felix Schönhofen, M.Sc., QFD Green Belt® Researcher / Lecturer, University of Stuttgart, Chair of Information Systems II, GERMANY

Quality is the backbone of ever-growing digitalization and automation in every industry. For example, you cannot (or should not) build an autonomously driving car only by trial and error. Quality management is crucial also for easy-to-use products like smart phone apps because negative assessments by the users could impact the company success, not to mentioning security issues. However, teaching quality management tools such as QFD, FMEA or DFSS is a major challenge today: They appear boring to learn and use to today's students, who instead prefer innovation methods such as design thinking and lean startup because they appear more fun and require less engineering, less systematic problem solving, less groundwork, and more feedback gathering and fun of ideation. The aim of this paper is to present a way to teach QFD in higher education, especially to the younger generation of students, so as to help them really “understand how to cause good quality” (ISO 16355-1, p. 3) mentally on a sustained basis.

Hoshin Kanri 2019

Job Function Deployment for Managers to Improve Organizational Capabilities

Hideaki Haraga, Senir Manager, Konica Minolta Inc. JAPAN: Koji Tanaka, Kanjie Associates JAPAN

QFD, as classically defined by Dr. Akao, consists of quality deployment and narrowly-defined quality function deployment. In Japan, the latter is sometimes called "job function deployment" and they use the "verb + noun" format (such as "achieve the sales goal") to determine and deploy necessary tasks. The authors propose to classify the essential job functions of an organization into two categories: 1) Hard management" that involves the job functions related to managing the company's performance targets, the category area commonly addressed by policy management (Hoshin Kanri).; and 2) "Soft management" that involves the job functions for achieving organizational innovation, the category area where the authors' focus is on the role of Japanese middle mangers. The authors believe that their expanded job function concept would lead to innovation and improved corporate capability among Japanese companies.

Appendix 2019

Keeping Up with Global Best Practice: ISO 16355—Applications of Statistical and Related Methods to New Technology and Product Development Process

Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute, USA

Proposed Systematic Priority Deployment Method of Strategic Initiatives

Dennis Frankos, QFD Black Belt®, NextEra Energy Inc., USA

Top technology is not all we need for a successful business: QFD logic, methods and tools — Dutch experience

Biljana Visnjicki, QFD Black Belt®, Coddel, the Netherlands; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute, USA

QFD and Requirements Prioritization: A Survey on Security Requirements for Cloud Computing

Prof. Dr. Georg Herzwurm; Norman Pelzl, Dipl.-Wirt.-Inf.; Benedikt Krams, Dipl.-Kfm. (FH), M.Sc., University of Stuttgart, Chair of Information Systems II, GERMANY

Value Based Product Development - Using QFD and AHP to Identify, Prioritize, and Align Key Customer Needs and Business Goals

Chad Johnson, QFD Black Belt®, Six Sigma Master Black Belt, TRW Automotive Braking Division World Headquarters, USA; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFDI

Development of Highly Reliable Valves for H-IIA Rocket

K. Kojima, M. Matsuda and K. Yoshikawa , Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, JAPAN; H. Nanri, K. Okita, and M. Fukuoka, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAPAN; Yoji Akao, Ph.D., Asahi University, JAPAN

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2016: The 22nd International Symposium on QFD (ISQFD'16-Boise) and The 27th North American Symposium on QFD
ISBN 1-889477-26-5
Order Form (Word file)

The 2016 volume is available at the ISQFD'16-Boise. It will be released to the public after February 1, 2017.

Aerospace 2016

QFD and the Systems Engineering Way of Working

Steve Dimelow, QFD Black Belt®, Systems Engineering Specialist, Rolls-Royce plc. United Kingdom.

This paper discusses the integration of Modern Blitz QFD® and Pathfinder, a Systems Engineering (SE) approach developed at Rolls Royce. In addition to the modern QFD tools such as Projects Goals Table, Customer Segment Table, Affinity Diagram, Hierarchy Diagram, AHP, and Maximum Value Table, the flow of Pathfinder tools such as Stakeholder Map / Context and Boundary Diagrams and Viewpoint Analysis are employed. The paper will support the ISO 196355 standard to reference good practice and evidence of usage in industry.

Keywords: ISO 16355, Blitz QFD®, Systems Engineering, AHP, Stakeholder Map

Energy 2016

The Hoshin Express — From Idea to Project

Dennis Frankos, QFD Black Belt®, Staff Engineer/Quality Deployment Leader, NextEraEnergy Inc. Power Generation Division, USA; Myra Gardiner, Lean Six Sigma Black Belt, Central Maintenance General Manager, NextEra Energy, Inc., Power Generation Division, USA; Glenn H. Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Executive Director, QFD Institute, Academician, International Academy for Quality, USA.

The mission of the Power Generation Division at NextEra Energy is to deliver certainty of operations and maintenance for all its non-nuclear assets. Exceeding organizational goals are driven by the implementation of quality oriented continuous improvement opportunities that add value. This paper demonstrates the application of Hoshin Kanri - Policy (Priority) Deployment from idea generation to project selection in the central organization of the PGD business unit. Leveraging a systematic method across all fleets in the business unit make it easier to share best practices across the enterprise, provide line-of-sight from high value projects through to business unit strategies, and promote consistency in selecting projects with maximum value in meeting customer needs.

Keywords: Hoshin Kanri, Organizational Strategic Planning, Systematic Policy Deployment, Corporate Priorities, High Value Projects

Soft Systems Method Integration with Sustainable Energy Systems Development Using ISO 16355

Dr Kim Stansfield, CEng, QFD Black Belt®, Senior Teaching Fellow, Warwick University WMG, UK; Dr Mike Colechin, Partnership Manager, Energy Technologies Institute, UK; Glenn H Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Executive Director, QFD Institute, USA.

The Soft Systems Method was developed by Peter Checkland's team at Lancaster University in the 1970s to help analyze complex situations or 'soft problems' where the problem for which a solution is sought is not clearly understood, or for which differences of opinion exist as to the precise nature of the problem. Such a 'soft problem' exists in the development of sustainable (economic and environmental) energy systems. This paper will illustrate how modern QFD methods described in the 'ISO 16355 standard for QFD' have been used in the UK's Energy Technologies Institute to help in the analysis of the 'soft problem' of transition to low-CO2 energy systems. Illustrations will be given on how these methods can be used to establish system specifications and designs.

Keywords: Sustainable Energy Systems; Soft Systems Method; ISO 16355; Modern QFD; Outcome Based Design; Sustainable Energy; Policy Deployment; Hoshin Kanri; Stakeholder Management; Prioritisation; Needs Analysis; Concept Design; Design Selection

Information Technology / Software 2016

Using QFD to Design a Smart School Quality Factor Model: Integrating QFD into IoT

Amany Alnahdi, Kent State University, Computer Science Department USA / King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Austin Melton, Ph.D., Professor, Departments of Computer Science and Mathematical Sciences, Kent State University, USA

The internet of things (IoT) relies on the principle of making the whole much greater than individual things by connecting their data. But how can all these things work together effectively? This question is similar to the question which QFD always asks: What is the voice of the customer (VOC) regarding the important qualities of a product? Our research aims to show the integration of QFD will enhance IoT usefulness. This paper begins with an example of developing smart schools with QFD.

Keywords: QFD; IoT; Quality Factors; Smart Schools; Web Services

QFD for Testing the Internet of Things (IoT)

Thomas Fehlmann, Ph.D., Senior Researcher, Euro Project Office AG, Switzerland

The theory of Combinatory Logic has a model that is very useful when dealing with unknown cause-and-effect relationships. Combinatory Algebra can be seen as a generalization of QFD as it deals with infinite cause-and-effect relationships and it lays the theoretical foundations for managing complexity in the Internet of Things (IoT). This paper shows the model of combinatory logics and how QFD implements such a model in practice, proposing new approaches based on theory for predicting strange and unforeseeable conditions and how the "things" behave under them.

Keywords: Combinatory Logic, Lambda Calculus, Combinatory Algebra, Six Sigma Transfer Functions, QFD, IoT, Automated Testing of IoT

A Method of Software Requirements Analysis Considering the Requirements Volatility from the Risk Management Point of View

Yunarso Anang, University of Yamanashi, Dept of Computer Science & Engineering JAPAN / Institute of Statistics, Indonesia; Masakazu Takahashi and Yoshimichi Watanabe, Ph.D., University of Yamanashi, Dept of Computer Science & Engineering JAPAN

Due to immature and volatile nature of software specifications, the incremental development cycle such as spiral and agile models, or even the conventional waterfall model, are still inadequate to address the challenge. It is easier to just accept the potential of requirements change as a risk. In this study, we describe a method of software requirements analysis in consideration of the requirements volatility risk. We use QFD as the base method, while we apply R-Map as a tool for risk assessment. We use actual software changes tracking record to obtain the risk of changing, and we evaluate our proposed method by applying the method to a real software product as our case studies.

Keywords: software requirements volatility, risk management, quality function deployment, r-map

A Critical Analysis of Software QFD Publications

Prof. Dr. Georg Herzwurm, Dipl.-Wirt.-Inf. Sixten Schockert and Tobias Tauterat, University Stuttgart, Graduate School of Excellence Advanced Manufacturing Engineering, Chair of Information Systems II / QFD Institut Deutschland e. V., Germany

Software QFD publications are analyzed with respect to these points, and future outlook of QFD in software development is discussed.

Keywords: Software Quality Function Deployment (Software QFD), Experiences with Software QFD, Literature analysis, Future of QFD

Early Requirements Validation by Means of Virtual Prototypes for the QFD Use

Christian Esser M.Sc. and Prof. Dr.-Ing. Robert Refflinghaus, University of Kassel, Dept.of Quality and Process Management, Germany

Understanding requirements as part of proactive quality management is important, as is the need for early requirements validation for product development process. For this, using three dimensional virtual reality (3D VR) early on allows developers to visually illustrate or simulate product features and functions. Integrated into the QFD, it is possible to restructure the requirements at an early stage. Based on clear requirement structures, the results of this proactive quality measure can lead to better product quality..

Keywords: Customer requirements, product development, QFD, virtual prototype, 3D virtual reality

ISO-16355 2016

Keeping Up with Global Best Practice: ISO 16355—Applications of Statistical and Related Methods to New Technology and Product Development Process

Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Executive Director, QFD Institute / International Academy for Quality, USA

This paper outlines the structure of the eight parts of the newly published ISO 16355, how they build on older QFD models from the 1970s and 80s, and what you need to do to become a leader and facilitator of this Modern QFD standard. ISO 16355 is already attracting the attention of quality organizations, Six Sigma, and Lean professionals. New Product Development professionals will want to master these global best practices so they can engage their organizations in surging ahead of their competitors in creating the truly great products their customers demand.

Keywords: ISO 16355, QFD, Hoshin Kanri

Using AHP in QFD—The Impact of the New ISO 16355 Standard

Thomas Fehlmann, Ph.D., Senior Consultant, Euro Project Office AG, Switzerland; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Executive Director, QFD Institute / International Academy for Quality, USA

Traditional QFD uses ordinal weights-percentages of a total to describe priorities for customer's needs and technical solution approaches, while AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) works with profiles-vectors of unit length one, making it mathematically possible to add, subtract and compare profiles. The ratio method proposed by Dr. Saaty has been a part of Modern QFD for some time, and it is now incorporated in the new ISO standard 16335. Not understanding how to properly apply AHP in QFD, however, could lead to project failures, especially if you are still using the traditional House of Quality (HoQ) matrix. This paper discusses why and how to update the HoQ practice to the new ISO.

Keywords: AHP, QFD, Comprehensive QFD, Six Sigma, Eigenvectors, Linear Algebra, ISO 16355

New Kano Model / New Product Development & Marketing 2016

Using the New Kano Model: How to Really Excite Your Customers

Harold Ross, QFD Green Belt®, General Motors (ret.), USA

Kano model is well known for its intriguing diagram of 'exciting quality' vs. 'expected quality.' However, it is one of the most misunderstood concept. As one of a few who actually examined the original 1984 research by Noriaki Kano, Ph.D.,, the author points out some serious deficiencies in the original Kano model as well as the one commonly practiced in America and elsewhere. He then presents the New Kano Model that offers superior insights on what needs to be done to really build excitements in new product development.

Keywords: New Kano Model, exciting quality, new product development, extrapolating design decisions, latent requirements, advanced QFD

Sustainability 2016

Sustainability Function Deployment (QFD) Applied to Increase Environmental and Social Economic Value Added of Products, Service, and Projects

Juan Manuel García, Founder, Leanradarorg and Corporate EHS Sustainability, Baxter Corporation, USA

Products and services have the objective to increase quality of life, but in some cases the result is a negative impact to the community (environment, society, economy, and health). This can be especially true in rural communities. Using QFD to integrate socioeconomic life cycle assessment (SLCA) in five projects will demonstrate up to three times the economic value added. For three projects, information was collected directly in the communities, using focus groups, surveys and investigation. SLCA was then used to understand impact. Finally, critical functions of the projects, products, and services were determined by applying QFD and SFD. Results were examined for social economic return on investment (SEROI) in order to identify functions and characteristics that can maximize economic value added to existing or future projects, products, or services.

Keywords: Sustainability Function deployment (SFD), socioeconomic value added, environmental life cycle assessment

TQM / Kaizen 2016

TQM Implementation in China via Practicing QFD

Catherine Y.P. Chan, Ph.D., QFD Black Belt®, president, Hong Kong QFD Association, Hong Kong; Prof. Gail Taylor, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.

Although TQM was introduced to China in the 1980s, it is only recently that Chinese manufacturers began recognizing its importance, as they face increasing competition from countries that offer even cheaper labor and declining global economy that affects the purchasing powers of their overseas customers. Added to this are Chinese organizational culture and Chinese way of implementing TQM that are not helping. This paper explains why introducing QFD is an essential business strategy for Chinese manufacturers in their pursuit for sustainable success in the global market.

Keywords: Quality function deployment, QFD, total quality management, TQM implementation, Chinese manufacturing enterprises

A Study on Sustainable KAIZEN based on Job Function Deployment Methodology and Methods Engineering at On-site Logistics and Processes

Masamitsu Kiuchi, Ph.D., Josai University, Japan; Kazushi Nagai, Tamagawa University, Japan

Job function deployment is a method that helps transform customer needs into engineering attributes for a service or product. Methods engineering is a domain of industrial engineering that deals with human integration and manufacturing engineering. These two methodologies used together, can help companies achieve "KAIZEN" as understood in the context of Japanese corporate culture and philosophy, a success that even non-Japanese companies can emulate.

Keywords: Job Function Deployment, Method Engineering, KAIZEN

QFD Historical Milestones 2016

Historical Perspectives on Global Spread of QFD

2016 marks the 50th anniversary of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) since the first case study publication half century ago in Japan. A new important milestone has been achieved recently: The establishment of ISO 16355 for QFD, approved in May 2016 ISO meeting in London, UK. Recognizing these historic moments, this International Symposium on QFD in Boise assembled the pioneers of QFD from Japan, US, Germany, EU, and China, to share their experience and perspectives on global spread of QFD.

PANELISTS: Dr. Shindo (University of Yamanashi, Japan), Bob King (founder and retired CEO of GOAL/QPC, USA);Harold Ross (retired GM Product Development manager); Dr. Herzwurm (University of Stuttgart / QFD-Institut Deutschland, Germany); Dr. Catherine Chan (president of Hong Kong QFD Association); Glenn Mazur (executive director, QFD Institute and convenor of ISO 16355).

Keywords: History of QFD, Global QFD dissemination, ISO 16355, advancements in QFD, QFD in EU, QFD in Americas, QFD in Japan, QFD in China Appendix 2016 Slides for panel: “The origins and history of Japanese quality development and deployment” Hisakazu SHINDO, Ph.D., Professor emeritus and former vice president of University of Yamanashi, Japan

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2014: The 26th Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-26-5)
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Energy 2014

"Proposed Systematic Priority Deployment Method of Strategic Initiatives"

Dennis Frankos, Quality Deployment Leader, QFD Black Belt®, NextEra Energy Inc., USA

The mission of the Power Generation Division at NextEra Energy is to deliver certainty of operations and maintenance for all its non-nuclear assets. Exceeding organizational goals are driven by the implementation of quality oriented continuous improvement opportunities that add value. This paper proposes a systematic method to deploy strategic initiatives across the business unit that places emphasis on selecting projects of maximum value. Leveraging a systematic method across all fleets in the business unit make it easier to share best practices across the enterprise, provide line-of-sight from high value projects through to business unit strategies, and promote consistency in selecting projects with maximum value in meeting customer needs.

Keywords: Blitz, QFD, AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process), Priority, HOQ (House of Quality)

Information Technology / Software 2014

"QFD for Cloud Computing"

Prof. Dr. Georg Herzwurm and Dipl. Wirt.-Inf. Sixten Schockert, University of Stuttgart, Germany

The introduction of the client-server model in the 80s had a huge impact on the information technology used in manufacturing industry as well as within IT organizations (e.g. concerning the operation and the development of applications). Just like that, cloud computing will have a severe impact on almost all industries. This paper describes how QFD can be used to define specifications for cloud based IT solutions. Starting with the global mega trends, this paper explains the characteristics of cloud computing and their impact on the application of QFD, especially on the collaboration of all involved stakeholders. From this analysis and a conducted case study with a German information technology service provider, the authors derive several recommendations on how to execute QFD for cloud computing.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, IT, QFD

"Helping Software Engineers Apply QFD Methods"

Leenah Alrabghi, Ph.D. student, Kent State University USA; Austin Melton, Ph.D., Professor, Departments of Computer Science and Mathematical Sciences, Kent State University, USA

There are many documented benefits of using QFD. The software engineer can use QFD as a framework for activities aimed at improving the quality of software. Since QFD was originally proposed to develop high quality manufactured products, a few considerations must take place before applying it to software development. Based on the waterfall model (four phase model), the researchers of this academic paper point out how QFD tools can be used to benefit software engineers, what features QFD is missing with respect to common software engineering practices, and how QFD can become more applicable to software engineers.

Keywords: QFD, SQFD, Software Engineer, Software Engineering, Waterfall Model

New Kano Model 2014

"New Kano Model — How to Really Excite Your Customers"

Harold Ross,QFD Green Belt®, Director, QFD Institute; General Motors (ret.), USA

Dr. Noriaki Kano developed an interesting approach to classifying quality attributes by determining customer satisfaction with different levels of product features or performance. Results of a unique survey of positive / neutral / negative responses to questions can help developers determine whether a new feature or performance would be an exciter or a basic expectation of the customer. General Motors began using Kano's method some years ago and achieved additional insights by making adaptations of the method. Among these insights included revealing unknown market segments, marketing/advertising content, and clearer performance targets for each segment. This papr discusses details of this as well as a case study for automotive braking systems. This modified approach is now called the New Kano Model and will provide better understanding of the model and implementation.

Keywords: New Kano Model, Attractive Quality, Expected Quality, Customer Satisfaction Survey

Sustainability 2014

"Designing Sustainable Products With QFD"

Dale Roach, QFD Green Belt®, Ph.D., P. Eng., Senior Teaching Associate, University of New Brunswick, Canada

As sustainability is often loosely defined and may be desired but not understood by the customer, QFD is an ideal tool for determining a product’s requirements. Additionally, sustainable products can involve significant deviation from traditional solutions so it is important to incorporate it early in the design process prior to the rapid decrease of design freedom that takes place once design has begun. This paper examines the process of developing sustainable products and proposes a framework for ensuring that sustainability is addressed.

Keywords: Sustainability, Sustainable Product Development, Sustainable Design, QFD

ISO 16355 and QFD 2014

"Driving Your QFD with ISO 16355"

Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Executive Director, QFD Institute, USA

This paper explains how to drive different kinds of QFD projects based on the advanced deployments in Dr. Yoji Akao's comprehensive book "Quality Function Deployment: Integrating Customer Requirements into Product Design." While most QFD experts are familiar only with Customer-driven QFD which begins with a market focus, these advanced drivers address many other types of new product development projects. Included will be Technology-driven QFD, Cost-driven QFD, Competitor-driven QFD, Regulatory-driven QFD, Manufacturing-driven QFD, etc., exemplified with case studies. These are included in the draft "ISO 16355 for QFD." Find out what you will need to know and change in order to comply with the new standard.

Keywords: Technology-driven QFD, Cost-driven QFD, Competitor-driven QFD, Regulatory-driven QFD, Manufacturing-driven QFD, ISO 16355

Bonus Papers 2014

"Using QFD to Design a Multi-Disciplinary Clinic"

Children's Mercy Hospital

Keywords: Healthcare

"DREAM/QFD to Re-design Staff Service Excellence at Rutland Regional Hospital Systems"

Rutland Regional Health Systems

Keywords: Healthcare

"Future Combat System Concept Development: Integrating Service and Product Requirements in QFD"

Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control

Keywords: Defense

"The Analytic Hierarchy Process: How to Measure Intangibles in a Meaningful Way Side by Side with Tangibles"

Thomas L. Saaty, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh

Keywords: AHP

"Why We Drink Beer: Using QFD, Kansei, and AHP to Understand How Consumers Identify with Brands"

Boonrawd Trading International Co., Ltd. (Thai Beer)

Keywords: Beverage, Branding

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2013: The 19th International & 25th North American Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-25-6)
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Global QFD 2013

KEYNOTE: Global QFD: From Japan to the World

Yoji Akao, Ph.D., Japan

This keynote by a founder of QFD shares the history of QFD dissemination around the world, through his personal accounts of introducing, teaching, and facilitating the Japanese-born quality design methodology in various countries in the past several decades.

Keywords: QFD, QFD publications and literatures, Turkey

A Critical Analysis of the Turkish Literature on QFD

Aysun Kapucugil-Ikiz, Ph.D. and Guzin Ozdagoglu, Ph.D., Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey

This paper reviews Turkish publications on Quality Function Deployment (QFD) produced between 2000 and 2012, offering a knowledge base and holistic references for researchers studying QFD.

Keywords: QFD, QFD publications and literatures, Turkey

Top technology is not all we need for a successful business: QFD logic, methods and tools — Dutch experience

Biljana Visnjicki, Coddel, the Netherlands; Glenn Mazur, QFD Institute, USA.

This presentation will report a pilot project in The Netherlands, the utilization of QFD for business development. It will share the Dutch experience of customer centered marketing campaigns based on the VOC and modern QFD, as well as the logical, systematic, and interactive link between commercial and technology teams in one organization.

Keywords: Modern QFD, Business Development, Business Analysis, VOC 

Industrial Design 2013

Towards QFD-based Industrial Design

Prof. Dr. Wolfram Pietsch and Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andreas Gebhardt, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Germany.

Customer Orientation is achieved within QFD by a systematic approach. Within industrial design, requirements of the customer are also analysed and deployed with the power of artistic creativity, less with a systematic or qualitative approach. The paper proposes the integration of QFD and industrial design through a case study, leading a tentative framework for QFD-based Industrial Design.

Keywords: Customer-Orientation, Industrial Design, Conceptual Integration, Conceptual Map, Deisgn Concept, Product Catalogue

IT Architecture / IT Security / Software QA 2013

QFD and Requirements Prioritization: A Survey on Security Requirements for Cloud Computing

Prof. Dr. Georg Herzwurm; Norman Pelzl, Dipl.-Wirt.-Inf.; Benedikt Krams, Dipl.-Kfm. (FH), M.Sc. of University of Stuttgart - Chair of Information Systems II (Business Software), Germany.

Prioritization is an essential task within QFD, and QFD is highly suitable for the development of Cloud Computing (CC) applications where non-functional requirements play a main role. Many of them are security requirements, often the main concern for CC investments. This paper introduces the usage of QFD for Cloud Computing (CC). In this research, CC security requirements were prioritized by pairwise comparison, showing that not all security requirements are equally important. With this finding, the appropriate usage of QFD for CC development will be discussed.

Keywords: QFD, Requirements Prioritization, Security Requirements, Cloud Computing

Application of QFD to the Symptom Analysis of Input-device Software Defects

Yamamoto Takahiro, Software QA, Wacom Co., Ltd., Japan.

The traditional function/regression tests following the design specification do not adequately ensure software quality, due to the evaluation complexity posed by various input-device software such as USB, wireless communication device, sensor, LCD display technologies, etc. This paper proposes a better method for evaluating and analyzing software defects by correctly assessing the symptoms of original causes of failures and identifying the relationships between the operations and subjects through the use of the function deployment tables and state transition tables. This feeds back not only reliability but also functionality to the quality evaluation.

Keywords: Software QA, QFD, FTA, Symptom Analysis, Test Coverage, Evaluation Deployment

Improving a Learning Management System based on QFD and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)

Aysun Kapucugil-Ikiz, Ph.D. and Guzin Ozdagoglu, Ph.D., Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey.

This paper focuses on the improvement of web-based services, e.g. a learning management system, whose users are invisible by discovering their needs and translating them into the artictecture of this system through the integration of QFD and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).

Keywords: QFD, SOA, Online Learning, Customer Process Model, Gemba Visit table, AHP, CVT, MVT, Turkey

Improvement of University e-Portfolio System in Consideration of Students' Demands

Masanobu Yoshikawa, M.E., Kohei Nitta, M.B., Yoshimichi Watanabe, Ph.D., and Hisakazu Shindo, University of Yamanashi, Japan.

Using a QFD approach, demand analysis and factor analysis were performed for the successful introduction of e-Portfolio system for a public university in Japan. By analyzing the students' demands and factors of an existing software, the researchers were able to turn the e-Portfolio system software into an information infrastructure that can be fully utilized by students for effective introspective study and efficient completion of their study plans.

Keywords: Quality Assurance in Higher Education, e-Portfolio, Requirement Analysis, Software Development

Software Development Method Based on Twin Peaks Model with QFD

Yoshimichi Watanabe, Ph.D., Masanobu Yoshikawa, and Hisakazu Shindo, Ph.D. , University of Yamanashi, Japan.

In software system development, it is important to analyze the stakeholder’s requirements and design the architecture. One proposed method for this is the twin peaks model which intertwines software requirements and architectures to achieve incremental development and speedy delivery. The researchers used QFD to clarify these relationships in hope to propose more efficient software development.

Keywords: Software Development, Requirements, Architecture Design

Membership Organizations / Organizational Goals Delivery 2013

KEYNOTE: QFD for Membership Organizations — Practicing What We Teach

Glenn H. Mazur, QFD Black Belt®, QFD Institute, USA; International Council for QFD, International Academy for Quality (IAQ)

This paper reports an ongoing QFD initiative at the International Academy for Quality (IAQ), a membership organization founded in 1966 by Dr. Armand Feigenbaum along with European and Japanese quality experts. The IAQ's growing membership in developing nations means that member needs have to be periodically assessed and incorporated into future activities, beyond its original missions of facilitating an international exchange of quality expertise to promote quality throughout all nations. The paper will discuss the QFD process being used to reassess current member needs and plan future programs, including the data from member surveys, as well as the results to date and ongoing improvements to the organization.

Keywords: QFD, IAQ, Membership Organization, Voice of Customer

New Product Development 2013

Quality Function Deployment for New Product Development: Transforming Waste to Worth

Pattarit Sahasyodhin; Kritaya Suparnpongs, QFD Black Belt®; Paweena Lertchanyakul, QFD Green Belt®, SCG Chemicals Co.,Ltd., Thailand.

Barley grain is a waste product from the customer’s production process and typically sold as pet food. By incorporating our innovative product, we have developed a new kind of eco-friendly construction material that adds value both in function and for the customer’s brand image. This paper will report an application of QFD in this NPD, most challengingly in eliciting the needs from psychological elements and deploying them into design specifications, development process, sourcing, and other considerations for successful product rollout.

Keywords: Gemba visit, VOC table, HoQ table, Design of experiment, Concept Test

Application of QFD for the Development of An Organic Product: A Pilot Study

Paulo Augusto Cauchick Miguel, Ph.D.; Jaqueline de Fátima Cardoso, Ph.D. researcher; Nelson Casarotto Filho is an Associate Professor of Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Brazil.

This paper reports a pilot QFD application for the development of an organic product. The paper presents a conceptual model which consists of four matrices for the development of an organic fruit jelly. The main adaptation is in the first matrix to include major actors in the production supply chain. The first results indicate the feasibility of the proposal for food development.

Keywords: Product Development, Organic Products, QFD

Manufacturing 2013

Study of Applying QFD to Modularity Strategy

Tadao Nakamura, Dassault Systemes K.K., Japan.

Japanese manufactures are excellent at developing integral type products, such as cars and complicated machines that need fine tuning (e.g. Semiconductor manufacturing machines). However, many products are currently shifting toward modular systems, and this is where Japanese manufacturers are weak at establishing logical architectures and rules needed for modularity. This paper will define a better modular product architecture by using QFD to arrange many complex issues such as customer needs, cost, technology, manufacturability, serviceability etc. and simulate them through a series of matrices.

Keywords: QFD, Modularity, Modular, Integral-type

Starting QFD for Clothing Manufacturers in Hong Kong

Catherine Y. P. Chan, Ph.D., QFD Black Belt®, Hong Kong QFD Association; Gail Taylor, Institute of Textiles and Clothing at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.

Some 20 years ago the clothing manufacturers in Hong Kong only had to deal with the sewing or knitting of the samples for fashion designers. Today they are expected to provide technical design services as well as sample development process. The increasing degree of abstractness and the shift from quantitative to qualitative nature of technical data have created many communication problems. This paper will identify the areas in which QFD can help Hong Kong clothing manufacturers in development and design and also explore the effective QFD approaches.

Service Quality & Workplace 2013

A Study of Service Quality Improvement Using the Theories of Nonverbal Communication, FMEA and QFD

Kazushi Nagai and Tadashi Ohfuji, Tamagawa University, Japan; Masamitsu Kiuchi, Ph.D., Josai University, Japan.

In this study, how to improve the service quality will be discussed. Study of service industry presents unique challenges because of soft issue measurements such as quality evaluation and service quality. With this in mind, the authors propose a quality improvement process specifically for service industry and will show a case study using non-verbal communication, FMEA, and QFD.

Keywords: Service Quality Improvement, QC story, QFD

QFD for activating a workplace Ba—Part 2

Koji Tanaka, Tokibo, Co., Ltd., Japan.

The various components of QFD draw out member's tacit knowledge through ‘Ba’ (the workplace gemba). In order to achieve this, the ‘Ba’ must be invigorated with changes that encourage the individuals to express and share his/her tacit knowledge. This paper, a sequel to the author’s 2012 presentation, will examine the relationship between QFD and ‘Ba’ from the viewpoint of cognitive engineering and social-psychology and show some examples of his company’s practices.

Keywords: Service Quality Improvement, QC story, QFD

Supply Chain 2013

Modern QFD Application on a Supply Chain to Become Green

Askin Ozdagoglu, Ph.D. and Banu Atrek, Ph.D., Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Business, Turkey.

This paper focuses on determination of "green" practices for environmentally friendly supply chains, such as green procurement, green production, green distribution/marketing, and reverse logistics. This research identifies the processes that should be pursued by each member of the supply chain to become a “green” practitioner.

Keywords: Modern QFD, Supply Chain, Green Practice

Transportation 2013

Application of QFD within a Co-opetition Network of Public Transport Organizations

Dipl. Wirt.-Inf. Sixten Schockert, German QFDID certified QFD-Architect; Prof. Dr. Georg Herzwurm; Dipl.-Kfm. techn. Andreas Helferich, Universität Stuttgart, Germany.

The paper will describe an application of QFD in an ongoing research project funded by the German federal ministry of Education and Research. Public transport organizations are competitors as well as cooperative partners. In this setting of co-opetition we apply QFD, with the vision of offering passengers seamless transportation services. The paper will present the necessary adaptations and extensions of QFD as well as lessons learned.

Keywords: QFD, Public Transportation, Competitive Cooperation

Quality and Safety Control Method of High-speed Rail Based on QFD & FEMA [sic]

Prof. Wei Xiong, Zhejiang University, China.

Based solely on hypothetical scenario / data and others' literatures, this academic research from China presents a hypothetical use of the 4-phase model approach and FEMA [sic] for control quality and safety of China's high-speed rail.

Methods 2013

A Statistical Engineering Approach to Codifying the Voice of the Customer

Thomas Scripps, Scripps & Associates, USA.

This paper proposes a way to create a logical flow for the Voice of the Customer processing by codifying a series of tools into a linear statistical engineering roadmap, in order to populate the conventional House of Quality matrix that uses "whats" and "hows" approach. The proposed method is explained with hypothetical data and examples.

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2012: The 24rd Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-24-9)
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Education 2012

"Elementary QFD: Using QFD to Assess and Evaluate the Learning Environment of a Private School Library and to Systematically Engage an ISACS Review"

Ken Mazur, QFD Black Belt®, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd., USA

A Modern Blitz QFD® application in a non-traditional customer/product model – a school. Emerson School is a private school located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, which is in the midst of undergoing a review by The Independent Schools Association of the Central States (ISACS). The project goal was to identify key customers and translate their Voice of Customer as well as ISACS criteria into true customer needs. Often organizations act on a situation without fully determining the true needs of stakeholders that would reveal the important context or unstated factor, leading to inadequate solutions or even exacerbated situations. This occurred several years ago. QFD Gemba study revealed the largest and unexpected hindrances to the current learning environment in the library media center. These observations and customer verbatims were translated into true needs and fully ordered using paired comparisons in the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Finally, the highest ranking needs were evaluated on a systematic level, addressing potential causes for concern such as difficulties of implementation, perception of teachers and students, as well as resources like cost, time and effort.

Keywords: Blitz QFD®, gemba visits, VOC translation, AHP, ISACS review, defining customers, elementary school, learning environment

Information Technology 2012

"Change Fix Model"

Karthik Jegannathan and Karthikh Pandian, Cognizant Technologies Solutions (India/USA)

The author proposes the Change Fix Model for improving agility of the estimation by using lean and QFD tools, enabling assessment of the impact of a change into the entire software lifecycle, starting with a regression model for establishing the relationship between impact of change and additional effort for implementing the change. .

Keywords: Change Fix Model

Political QFD 2012

"QFD and Politics — A Sure Way To Start An Argument"

Carey Hepler, QFD Black Belt®, Solantic Urgent Care (USA)

First of its kind, this paper examines using QFD in a political campaign. QFD is the art and science of taking the voice of the customer (VOC), and, more specifically, the top needs of the targeted customer segments, into consideration before developing a product or service. This paper discusses the specific steps of using Modern Blitz QFD® tools for an actual election campaign by his wife for a Florida county judgeship. Specifically, how to: 1) select target segments; 2) use the voice (top needs) of the target segment customers to develop the strategy; 3) create messaging; and 4) deploy the messaging to the targeted segments.

Keywords: political QFD, election campaign, voice of constituents, target segments, political messaging, strategy

Telecommunications 2012

"Repertory Grid – Potential for Requirements Management in the Quality Function Deployment - An Example of the German Smartphone Market"

Dipl.-Ing. Philipp Tursch, Industrial and Systems Engineering Department, Brandenburg University of Technology (Germany); Dipl.-Wirt.Math. Katrin Baumert, Chair of Marketing and Innovation Management, Brandenburg University of Technology (Germany); Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ralf Woll, Chair of Quality Management, Cottbus University of Technology (Germany)

Integration of cognitive psychology science, the Repertory Grid Technique (RGT), into QFD is proposed. In evaluating quality/performance of a product/service, customers follow unconscious personal perceptions, besides consideration of physical properties such as size, color, functions, etc. It is these unconsciously perceived characteristics that play an important role in the decision making process. Based on the Personal Construct Theory that contends that people experience, organize, and describe their environment in terms of cognitive personal concepts, the RGT was initially used in psychological diagnosis but has evolved to a set of general guidelines used in a wide variety of application domains, including environmental studies, education, healthcare, business, and it can be useful in identification of customer requirements in QFD analysis. Using a case of German smartphone market, this paperintroduces RGT and show how it can be used in QFD analysis.

Keywords: QFD, Repertory Grid, voice of customer, customer requirements

"Implementing Quality Function Deployment to Improve Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction: A Three Stages Empirical Approach in Jordanian Mobile Telecommunication"

Tasneem Alfalah, Glasgow Caledonian University (UK); Elizabeth Williamson, Ph.D., Glasgow School for Business and Society, Dept. of Management, Glasgow Caledonian University (UK); Susan Ogden, Ph.D., Glasgow School for Business and Society, Dept. of Management, Glasgow Caledonian University (UK)

QFD has had considerable success in companies, specifically in service sector, and therefore has been the subject of many research studies in recent years. The purpose of this study is to develop a QFD model that can be applied to evaluate the extent to improve customer satisfaction in the telecommunications industry in Jordan. This industry is vital to Jordanian economy and has become highly developed in recent years. The study develops a conceptual model that integrates the SERVQUAL Gap model and QFD which would, though identification of attractive attributes, highlight the weaker attributes to be overcome and innovative services to be implemented in the future. The first stage involved designing, administering and analyzing the SERVQUAL framework questionnaire. The study population comprises all Jordanian mobile telecommunication companies (Zain, Orange, and Umniah) located in Amman, the capital of Jordan. There is a gap between expectations and experience in all service quality dimensions. The QFD Model will be used to close these gaps.

Keywords: service quality, Quality Function Deployment, customer satisfaction

Transportation 2012

"Going to the Gemba: Number Two with a Bullet"

Jack B. ReVelle, Ph.D., ReVelle Solutions, LLC (USA)

A case study of China's high-speed rail, this paper will report the 'gemba' study to capture the VOC for the second generation bullet trains being developed by Tangshan Railway Vehicle Company and the Chinese Ministry of Railways. QFD was selected as a way to address the design deficiencies (such as quality and safety) manifested in their first generation bullet trains. The symposium presentation will include the unique gemba story in a country where the central government believes it represents the VOC, analytic methods such as thematic content analysis, MS Excel® sorting, affinity and Pareto analysis as well as the continuing challenge of overcoming the culturally ingrained belief that the government speaks for everyone.

Keywords: bullet train, gemba,high-speed rail (HSR), master HOQ, ministry of railways (MoR), neighborhood of quality (NOQ), Peoples’ Republic of China (PRC), QFD Capture, T-solution (TS), Tangshan Railway Vehicle Company, thematic content analysis (TCA), statement of work (SOW) , MS Excel® sorting

2012 Skills Building Exercise

Hoshin Kanri (Strategic Policy Management) mini workshop

Instructor: Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute (USA)

Hoshin Kanri is a systematic quality approach to planning, executing, auditing, and managing corporate vision and business strategy. It is a company-wide strategic management system that uses common QFD tools to visually indicate the relationships between executive-level targets and the means to achieve them, and those of direct reports. In this mini workshop using Blitz Hoshin approach, attendees are introduced to the basic concept and application of how Hoshin Kanri works through an easy-to-follow example and hands-on exercise. The 2012 Transactions volume contains the slides from this session (the workshop materials are available only at the workshop).

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2011: The 23rd Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-23-0)
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Medical Device 2011

"The QFD Process at Medtronic — Creating the Next Generation of Insulin Pumps and Sensors"

Carey Hepler, QFD Black Belt® and 2010 recipient of Akao Prize, Medtronic; Cary Talbot, QFD Black Belt®, Senior Marketing Product Planner, Medtronic, USA

Changes in technology and customer expectations are creating many new opportunities for medical device organizations. As the oldest and most respected diabetic medical device organization in the world, Medtronic MiniMed strives to stay ahead of the competition by quickly responding to these changes with new and improved insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitoring products. Recently, we have began using QFD to discover the unspoken customer needs for targeted portions of our population. QFD has allowed us to convert their needs into new products, services, and features to delight and attract new customers as well as retain current customers. This paper will describe some of the new opportunities we are facing, and show step by step how we are addressing them by understanding the Voice of the Customer and innovating and implementing exciting solutions.

Keywords: Voice of the customer, QFD, cross-functional teams, design, prioritization, AHP, segments, medical device QFD

IT Architecture / IT Service Management 2011

"Applying QFD Process, Tools and Techniques for Service Management: Business and IT Service Management (BSM & ITSM)"

Rajesh Radhakrishnan, Senior Managing Consultant & IT Architect, IBM, USA

QFD and the HOQ are tools that have relevance for field of IT architecture management (including requirements management) and IT service management (including service quality management). This paper provides a method to use QFD and HoQ in the 1) Requirements Management Process; 2) Architecture Development Management Process; as well as 3) Service Management Processes such as: Availability Management, Continuity Management, and Incident Management, among others.

Keywords: Service Management, Six Sigma, QFD, Architecture Management, Requirements Management

Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) 2011

"Using QFD to Organize Design for Six Sigma"

Benson Tendler, VP, First Solar (formerly VP Quality at Research In Motion, Canada); Gregory Watson, Business Excellence Solutions, Ltd., Finland; and Camille DeYong, Associate Professor, Oklahoma State University, USA

DFSS tools require organization using Product Line Management methods. QFD provides a means to sequentially develop market features into engineering functions that are specified by quantitative requirements which are testable. Understanding the Voice of the Customer and using the Kano Model to characterize engineering functions that are integrated with QFD can help to provide creative insights. This paper illustrates how to develop and deploy this approach to DFSS using QFD as an organization method and using the Kano Model to focus on the transition of market features into engineering functions.

Keywords: Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), Kano model, Voice of the customer (VoC)

Healthcare Service Development 2011

"Using QFD to Design a Multi-Disciplinary Clinic"

Jim Grimm, Quality Coordinator, Center of Clinical Effectiveness, Children's Mercy Hospital; Deb Denavs, consultant/ instructor, Johnson County Community College; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt® and recipient of 1998 Akao Prize® for Excellence, QFD Institute, USA.

Pediatric patients and families have become discriminating shoppers for healthcare. Hospitals must improve quality and attract and retain patients. This paper proposes Quality Function Deployment ( QFD)as a way to ensure focus on the vital few requirements, creating a structured planning and decision making methodology for capturing and translating stakeholder requirements into useful clinic language for the building of the Virtual Clinic. The QFD tools used include Customer Segments Table, Customer Process Model, Customer Voice Table, Gemba Visit Table, Customer Needs Hierarchy Diagram, Analytical Hierarchy Process, Customer Needs Hierarchy Diagram With AHP Priorities.

Keywords: AHP, Multi-Disciplinary Clinic, Patient and Family Centered Care, Virtual Clinic, VOB, VOC

Corporate Governance / Policy Development 2011

"QFD Applications for the Board of Directors"

Gregory H. Watson, chairman, International Academy for Quality; Glenn H. Mazur, QFD Red Belt® and recipient of 1998 Akao Prize® for Excellence, QFD Institute, USA; Yoji Akao, Ph.D., Yamagata University, Japan

QFD is not just a methodology that is useful for engineering or marketing — it is also helpful for organizing the design and development of policy by the Board of Directors. The International Academy for Quality (IAQ) has been developing the concept of "governance quality" over the past 15 years. Recently, IAQ has published an assessment methodology for Boards of Directors to apply in assessing their level of maturity in application of quality in the practices of their activities. This paper and presentation will extend this work by developing infrastructure for the leadership initiatives of a Board in the encouragement of continuous improvement of the organization from their level of executive oversight. The methodology for developing a strategic approach to quality definition and deployment will be the "Voice of the Customer" as developed using QFD.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, QFD for Boards of Directors, policy development

Systems Engineering / Complex Systems 2011

"Systems Engineering (SE) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD): A SE Perspective on Opportunities for Complementary Application in the Development of Complex Systems"

Michael W. Grenn, PhD Candidate, The George Washington University (Deputy Director, DTSA); Shahram Sarkani, Ph.D., P.E., Professor of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, The George Washington University; Thomas Mazzuchi, D.Sc., Professor of Operations Research, The George Washington University, USA

SE can be generally characterized as a functional architecture-based analysis approach to embed quality requirements into the system, and QFD can be generally characterized as a physical architecture-based analysis approach to embed quality functions into business processes. The different perspectives offer potential for complementary application to improve complex system development. The author offers hypotheses of the relationship between SE and QFD and a generalized method for estimation of system complexity early in SE and QFD process, as well as a research framework for retrospective analysis of Department of Defense (DoD) Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs) and successful use of the theory in commercial engineering projects.

Keywords: systems engineering (SE); quality function deployment (QFD); complex systems; major defense acquisition program (MDAP); customer needs; requirements; risk; lifecycle; design effort; design review; requirements stability; project success; complexity estimation

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2010: The 16th International & 22nd N. American Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-22 -2)
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Chemical Industry 2010

The Process of New Product Development to Assure Customer Satisfaction and Create New Business Opportunity in Chemical Industry

Paweena Lertchanyakul, SCG Chemicals Co., Ltd., THAILAND; Kritaya Suparnpongs, Corporate Total Quality Promotion Center, The Siam Cement PLC, THAILAND

This paper reports a QFD application in the chemical industry, specifically how QFD helps understanding of latent customer needs and incorporating them in the company's new product development and quality assurance process, leading to better customer satisfaction and business growth for both the company and their customers and creation of new market opportunities. A House of Quality matrix (HoQ), Design of Experiment (DOE), Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (PFMEA), Hazard Analysis (PHA), and Quality Assurance process charts were used, as well as product design review (DR) techniques for assuring product safety and liability from the initial development process.

Keywords: Solid Surface, QFD, Design of Experiment (DOE), Product Hazard Analysis (PHA), Process Failure Mode, and Effect Analysis (PFMEA)

Consumer Products 2010

KEYNOTE: A Case Study on the Development of a Folding Bicycle

Yoji Akao, Ph.D., Yamagata University Graduate School, JAPAN

An overview of QFD will be presented by a founder of QFD. QFD's intrinsic framework for the Knowledge Management and basic steps of QFD are shown through a student project for developing a folding bicycle.

Keywords: Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Comprehensive QFD, Knowledge Management

Education 2010

QFD-based Curriculum Development Model for Industrial Training

Catherine Y. P. Chan, Ph.D., QFD Black Belt®, Hong Kong QFD Association, Hong Kong, PRC; Glenn H. Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute, USA and ICQFD

The basic principles of QFD were adopted to develop an industrial training curriculum model for service-oriented manufacturing industries in Hong Kong. The model is characterized by the performance- focused as well as learning-oriented approaches, based on the Voice of Customers from both employers and individuals. Also included in consideration was the dynamics of trainers who make use of their subject-matter expertise to suggest the kinds of industrial knowledge for meeting the defined performance needs vs. course developers who make use of his/her professional knowledge to synthesis the derived subjects into an effective and coherent curriculum.

Keywords: QFD, Curriculum Development, Industrial Training, Vocational Training

Development of Educational Structure for Business Students in Quantitative Methods Area

Aysun Kapucugil Ikiz, Ph.D., QFD Green Belt®; Guzin Ozdagoglu, Ph.D.; Sabri Erdem, Ph.D.; and Ferkan Kaplanseren, Ph.D. of Dokuz Eylul University, TURKEY

This paper addresses how to align the educational structures of the business school program at Dokuz Eylul University in Turkey with the Bologna Process, an European higher education reform through international cooperation and academic exchange. To facilitate mobility of academic talents and offer broader access to high-quality higher education as aimed by this initiative, it is essential to have a systematic methodology to figure out the knowledge, skills, and competency requirements with respect to stakeholders' requirements and transform them into the commonly accepted professional and learning outcomes.

Keywords:  Bologna Process, European Higher Education Area, QFD, Curriculum Development, Business Administration, Quantitative Methods

Curriculum Planning for Education in Enterprise Resource Planning Systems

Lars Oliver Mautsch, Georg Herzwurm, Ph.D., Benedikt Krams, and Sixten Schockert of Universität Stuttgart, GERMANY

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is nowadays dominated by the major software producers and tends to be product-driven and solution-oriented. This research presents an approach for planning a more customer-oriented education in ERP software through the use of QFD techniques and by focusing on the most valuable modules within an education. Matrix consistency rules are applied so as to ensure identified customer requirements are met by the service offering of the university and to avoid wasting of scarce resources. A House of Quality (HoQ) matrix and pair-wise comparison are among the methods that will be shown.

Keywords: Enterprise Resource Planning, Education, Curriculum Planning, QFD

Government 2010

An Application of ANP together with Conjoint Analysis to Political Decision Making in Local Government

Yasushi Kasai, Yamanashi Prefectural Office/University of Yamanashi, JAPAN; Masanobu Yoshikawa, Yoshimichi Watanabe,  and Hisakazu Shindo, Ph.D. of University of Yamanashi, JAPAN

This paper proposes an application of Analytic Network Process (ANP) and Conjoint Analysis (CA) in a local government decision-making process concerning the use of public land for establishment of a community IT activity center, in an attempt to make policy making and executing in this Japanese prefectural government more transparent and improve accountability of political decisions, to better serve its diverse constituents.

Keywords: Municipal Policy Making, Analytic Network Process (ANP), Conjoint Analysis (CA)

Healthcare 2010

DREAM/QFD to Re-design Staff Service Excellence at Rutland Regional Hospital Systems

Darren Childs, QFD Green Belt; Melissa Bartlett, QFD Green Belt®; and Shannon Stover, QFD Green Belt® of Rutland Regional Health Systems, USA; Dom Serino, QFD Gold Belt®, Rutland Health Foundation, USA; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Japan Business Consultants, QFD Institute, USA / ICQFD

As a regional medical facility, the goal of Rutland Regional Health Systems is to develop standardized processes and clear expectations for how they serve their customers. Through working to apply quality thinking, the hospital team has identified the non-clinical areas needing improvements such as the way they deliver care to the patients, staff behaviors, words, body languages and different team coordination. This presentation will share an on-going project that demonstrates this hospital's commitment to understanding what is important to their patients and bringing fresh improvements in the delivery of patient care and the mind-set of healthcare professionals through the use of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and DREAM (Design/Redesign Effectiveness Assurance Method).

Keywords: Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Service Excellence, Healthcare, Voice of the Customer (VOC), Design/Redesign Effectiveness Assurance Method (DREAM)

QFD to Re-design New Physician Orientation and Induction: Connecting New Physicians into a Healthcare Community

Jill Jesso-White, QFD Green Belt®, Rutland Regional Medical Center, USA; Glenn H. Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute, USA and ICQFD

The physician induction process is an interactive process beginning from the recruitment of a physician and continuing over the first year to help him/her as well as the doctor's family adjust to both the medical and broader community environment. Its success is crucial to physician retention and development of a happy work force that can ultimately affect better patient care. This project shares our ongoing efforts to build a better process of orienting and inducting new physicians in our hospital and community, by using Modern QFD tools and Voice of the new physician feedback.

Keywords: Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), physician orientation, healthcare, Voice of the Customer (VOC), Design/Redesign Effectiveness Assurance Method (DREAM)

IT 2010

Complex IT Systems Design Using Both Traditional QFD and Blitz QFD®

Kim Stansfield, Ph.D., QFD Black Belt®, CSC Computer Sciences Ltd., UK; Jeff Cole, Six Sigma Black Belt, CSC Computer Sciences Ltd., UK; Glenn H Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Japan Business Consultants Ltd., QFD Institute, USA and ICQFD

This paper shows the benefits of traditional and Modern QFD approaches applied to align design complex IT Systems to meet customers' priority business needs. The uniqueness of this paper is the comparative study of Traditional QFD vs. Modern QFD - a rare opportunity in real business applications - in Complex IT System design and the revelation that how the associated prioritization and value analysis techniques in the latter bring alignment with business drivers - a key issue for IT Systems design today. First, it discusses Traditional QFD supported by other Six Sigma Methods, namely Boundary Analysis, Supplier, Input, Process, Output, Customer (SIPOC) and Critical To Quality Characteristic Analysis, and Prioritization using Pair-wise Comparison. It then demonstrates how inclusion of Blitz QFD® methods brings a level of clarity to customer and stakeholder value for the Business Solution and Business Architecture on which IT Systems are developed.

Keywords: Blitz QFD®, Traditional QFD, IT Systems, Design

Value-based Pricing as Origin for New and Further Development of IT-Products - Usage of Quality Function Deployment and Target Costing for Customer-oriented Pricing

Georg Herzwurm, Ph.D. and  Sixten Schockert, Universität Stuttgart / QFD Institut Deutschland e. V., GERMANY; Benedikt Krams and Lars Oliver Mautsch, QFD Institut Deutschland e. V., GERMANY

By applying QFD and Target Costing approaches, we can use derived pricing strategies and thereby achieve cost reduction in the customer-oriented, value-based pricing of IT-products. This paper considers not only established IT products but also software as a service, business and delivery model where software is distributed via the Internet without the need of installation on a client. Setting prices, therefore, is very challenging. For new development of IT products, this presentation will show an approach of combined usage of QFD and Target Costing to monitor the ex-post of IT development projects. For further development of IT products, the approach can be used to derive pricing strategies to be communicated into the market.

Keywords: QFD, Target Costing, Software Development of IT Products (SaaS), Value- based Pricing, Pricing Strategies

Taming IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) with QFD

Wolfram Pietsch, Ph.D., Aachen University of Applied Sciences, GERMANY

Professionalization of IT Services gained increasing attention in business and academia supported by the emergence of the process-oriented ITIL, a de-facto international standard for IT Service Management. The current version of ITIL comprises of total 1343 pages. An extensive employment of such a complex framework may lead to over-regulation. ITIL currently specifies only 'Whats'; it must detail the ‘how’ if it is to be implemented in business environment, but this would increase complexity. This issue has been addressed within a large telecommunication enterprise, solved with a complex QFD deployment, and validated within a pilot project. This presentation will show the specific toolset and tailoring process geared to IT service management.

Keywords: IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL), Stakeholder Analysis, Audit, Pareto, Portfolio

Enhancement of QFD Tool “T2T” and Its Application for Sightseeing Contents

Bao Tuoya, Zheng GenZhao, Masanobu Yoshikawa, Yoshimichi Watanabe, and Hisakazu Shindo, Ph.D., University of Yamanashi, JAPAN

This paper reports the functional enhancement of T2T, a QFD tool that was developed by the authors at Yamanashi University in Japan to simplify the construction of the Japanese Quality Chart, using the quantification method called QM3. The presentation will discuss the enhancement, challenges, and an example of its application in an online sightseeing information project.

Keywords: QFD tool, Quantification method, Two-way tables, Sightseeing contents

Logistics 2010

A Holistic Model for Structuring requirements Considering the Degree of Requirements’ Fulfillment and Its Implementation for Data Processing

Priv. Doz. Dr.-Ing. Robert Refflinghaus, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Horst-Artur Crostack, and Dipl.-Kff. Sandra Klute of Dortmund University of Technology, GERMANY

When planning and developing intra-logistical facilities, many stakeholder requirements with different weightings have to be considered in the early stages of QFD. This paper presents a holistic multidimensional structuring model including feedback. Using an example of a roll conveyer, an appropriate structure for a productive transfer into QFD is presented, along with an overview of the developed model and its dimensions, including the requirements concerning surroundings, information, reference object, the weighted level of performance and customer satisfaction.

Keywords: Requirements, Stakeholder, Multi-dimensional Model

Computer-aided Method for Automatic Identification of Effect Relations between Requirements on an Intra-logistics Facility

Dipl.-Ing. Constanze Kolbe, Dr.-Ing. Horst-Artur Crostack, and Priv. Doz. Dr.-Ing. Robert Refflinghaus of Dortmund University of Technology, GERMANY

While planning an intra-logistics facility, a huge number of requirements from several stakeholders are emitted. Effect relations are occurring among requirements, according to technical correlation and trade-offs between stakeholders. This study will present a new computer-aided method which enables an automatic cognition of requirement relations and evaluation based on their negative or positive effects. The method has been implemented as a software system for establishing technical- functional requirement category.

Keywords:  Requirement, Requirement Relation, Intra-logistics Facility, Quality Function Deployment

Marketing 2010

QFD for planning the Marketing Mix

Dipl.-Wirt.-Inf. Sixten Schockert and Georg Herzwurm, Ph.D., Universität Stuttgart / QFD Institut Deutschland e. V., GERMANY; Benedikt Krams and Lars Oliver, QFD Institut Deutschland e. V., GERMANY; Wolfram Pietsch, Ph.D., Aachen University of Applied Sciences / QFD Institut Deutschland e. V., GERMANY

This paper presents an application of QFD in marketing and product planning. It shows QFD as a tool for product managers for mediating between product development and marketing interests, especially with focus on planning the marketing communication activities. Two case studies are shown to illustrate QFD’s capability to mediate / integrate product management and the mutual benefit of QFD use in marketing. Tools used in these examples include message-means-matrix and IT product compass.

Keywords: Product Management, Marketing Mix, IT, Case Studies

The Customer's Way: Know what to do because you know why you do it

David Mitchell, Eaton Corporation, USA; Daniel Walker, River’s End Consulting, USA

Eaton, a global technology leader in electrical and industrial systems for aerospace, hydraulics, and vehicles, uses a phase gated product development cycle. During the initial deployment, the project team had experienced a gap in the ability to systematically identify essential customer wants and needs and to convert those into product requirements. This paper describes how they were able to gain clear directions by developing survey questions for each stakeholder that resulted in excellent feeder stock information for QFD House-1.

Keywords:  Customer Wants and Needs, Quality Function Deployment, Voice of the Customer, Question Guides, Affinitization, Survey, House of Quality

An Efficient Customer Group Selection for Quality Function Deployment

Ali Ahmady, Wichita State University, USA; Don Malzahn, Ph.D., Wichita State University, USA; S. Hossein Cheraghi, Ph.D., Western New England College, USA

This paper proposes a Rough Set-based approach to efficiently identify the consistent user classes whose perceptions on functional and non-functional requirements of a product play an important role in effective product design. Rough Set is a powerful mathematical approach which can identify redundant data and is effective in handling non-linear and non normal data commonly used in human evaluations such as QFD. This approach is helpful for companies that rely on traditional market segmentation to initiate and implement QFD projects, as it provides a mean to redefine primary customer groupings whose perceived satisfaction lead to purchasing decisions. A case study of website design is used to illustrate the approach.

Keywords:  QFD, Rough Set, Customer Segmentation, Market Segmentation, Customer Groupings

QFD Implementation 2010

KEYNOTE: Integrating QFD into Phase-Gates Product Design

Glenn H. Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute, USA

Quality approaches to new product development as a pipeline for commercialization has been growing in recent years. Methods such as Stage-Gate®, Design for Six Sigma, Design for Lean Sigma, and others have been helping organizations structure their techniques. QFD has been recognized by all these methods as an important tool set within the process, but exactly what QFD tools to use and when to use them must be determined on a case-by-case basis by custom-tailoring the QFD process to the organization and the development process being used. This paper shows how to expertly integrate QFD into different processes and different companies, through similarities and differences in each. The discussion will include the characteristics of Stage-Gate®, Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), Design for Lean Sigma, and how to truly benefit from these and other New Product Development (NPD) techniques by efficiently and correctly integrating QFD through customization into your unique NPD process and business strategy.

Keywords: Stage-Gate®, Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), Design for Lean Sigma, Integration of QFD (Quality Function Deployment), QFD Customization, New Product Development (NPD), Quality Methods

Efficient Way to Advance Policy Management Using QFD

Koji Tanaka, Kanjie Associates Inc., Knowledge Management Society of Japan, JAPAN

The management system for achieving fiscal year targets is called policy management. It is employed by many Japanese companies and relies on daily management of improvement activities by managers and workers. This paper reports the use of business function development in the policy management system to make the job functions visible for more efficient and effective targets setting.

Keywords:  Job Function Deployment, Policy Management, Control Item

The Fusion of QFD and Next Generation PLM including Systems Engineering

Tadao Nakamura, Competency Center Division, Dassault Systemes K.K., JAPAN

This paper introduces the integration of QFD and the latest Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) tools in Japan, including Systems Engineering. The most important element in successful product development is the human activities that cannot be done automatically by software. QFD plays an important role in offering the means for multi-discipline workers to relate to a development project in analyzing the requirements and organizing defined information that are important for the course of PLM.

Keywords:  QFD, PLM (Product Lifecylce Management), Systems Engineering, CAD, PDM (Product Data Management), CAE, MBE (Model-based Engineering), Requirement Management, VR (Virtual Reality)

QFD for the Company’s Sustainable Growth ― A trial of the new QFD training in Japan

Kazushi Nagai, Tamagawa University, JAPAN; Tadashi Ohfuji, Tamagawa University, JAPAN; Masamitsu Kiuchi, Ph.D., Josai University, JAPAN

In 2007, the authors presented a concept named e7-QFD (evolution 7-QFD) for uniting QFD with other statistical methods such as design of experiments, Taguchi method, etc. that called for construction of Quality Management System centered around a Japanese Quality Table (an initiative they named Sus-QFD). This was driven by the authors' research on helping Japanese companies apply QFD more smoothly. This paper discusses the progress with a case study example from the current House of Quality- based QFD training by Japan's trade group JUSE and the authors which this research aims to improve by using customer complaints as the source data.

Keywords:  evolution7-QFD, Sustainable growth QFD, QFD training

A Critical Analysis of QFD Application in Brazil after 20 Years of Its Application

Paulo A. Cauchick Miguel, Ph.D., Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, BRAZIL

This paper will discuss QFD applications by the academics and industry practitioners in a developing country. It offers a critical analysis of the types of matrices, scales, Voice of Customer and other tools that are often used in QFD applications in Brazil and the future opportunities for improvement.

Keywords:  Brazil, QFD application, voice of customer, matrices, scales

QFD for Effective Business Process Design (II)

Hideaki Haraga, Innovation Advancement Center, Konica Minolta Technology Center, Inc., JAPAN

In 2008, the author reported the knowledge workers' method of designing a business process by relating job-assurance elements that progressed from a high-ranking target to job functions. The method, however, had a weakness that required deployment of objectives into individual job assurance items, resulting in a big matrix. This paper reports improvements where assurance items of each job are extracted precisely and efficiently, leading to not only quality assurance but also a method of revamping internal operations such as planning, design, and prototyping.

Keywords:  Job Function, Assurance Items, Job Function Deployment, Business Process Design

Reliability 2010

Visualization of Attainment Levels of Design

Hiroyuki Okamoto, Engineering Process Innovation Planning Center, Ricoh Company, Ltd., JAPAN

This paper reports a trial to make visible the levels of design attainment in the design phase. A QFD matrix, wisdom, and information about past failures and so forth were used to identify content omissions in verification, so as to prevent design imperfection from resulting. The degree of risk from a quality loss originating from imperfect design was evaluated and used to guide the manager's decision.

Keywords:  Attainment Levels, Risk, Visualization, QFD, Excel Application Service 2010

Prevention of Recurrence and Preventive Measures of Service Quality Problem

Noriharu Kaneko, Service Quality Management Ltd. and CBM Co., Ltd., JAPAN

What is recurrence prevention and how to grasp the facts concerning service quality failures and how to devise countermeasures, how to prepare Standard Operating Procedures as the preventive measure against service quality failures? These are explained through actual cases and the relation to the QFD concept.

Keywords:  Recurrence Prevention, Preventive Measures, Service Quality Problems, Failure Mode Analysis, SOP, Visual Manual, Principles of Handling Claims, QA in Service Sectors

Strategy 2010

Developing a Church Growth Strategy through QFD, AHP, and Balanced Scorecard Strategy Mapping

Chad M. Johnson, QFD Black Belt®, Six Sigma Master Black Belt, TRW Automotive - Braking Division, USA

In order to flourish, today's church must be extremely focused with both its mission and prioritized objectives, and also capable of adjusting quickly as this landscape changes, just as in any business and organization. As such, it is important to have a repeatable process to develop, implement, and maintain an effective long-range plan. In the case of a church or any community activist group or non-profit organization for that matter, such a planning process is an exercise typically accomplished by an ever-changing mix of volunteers who must make sense of a vast, diverse, and sometimes precarious Voice of Customer landscape. This case study shares a Michigan church's application of Modern QFD tools, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), and Balanced Scorecard® approaches to derive the customer needs from church Gemba feedback and Customer Voice Table (CVT). The needs were then "affinitize" and made into a hierarchy diagram where AHP was applied to determine relative priorities with respect to the highest level objective of achieving sustainable church growth.

Keywords: Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Service Excellence, Healthcare, Voice of the Customer (VOC), Design/Redesign Effectiveness Assurance

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2009: The 21st Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-21-4)
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2009 Consumer Branding & Marketing

Why We Drink Beer: Using QFD, Kansei, and AHP to Understand How Consumers Identify with Brands  

Theera Vongpatanasin, QFD Black Belt®, Managing Director, Boonrawd Trading International Co., Ltd., Thailand; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute / Japan Business Consultants, Ltd., USA.

Keywords: Gemba Study, Consumer Branding, Foreign Markets, Marketing, Kansei Engineering, AHP, Modern QFD

This paper explores the application of new product development methods such as QFD, Kansei Engineering, and Analytic Hierarchy Process to assist sales and marketing groups to better understand how customers feel about the products they buy. The authors have applied these techniques to learn about how the image that Thailand’s premier beer, Singha, is perceived by consumers in the U.K. to apply the findings for future marketing and branding campaigns.

2009 Cost Cutting / Price Deployment

Cost-cutting QFD: How to Reduce Non-value Added Costs in Goods and Services

Harold Ross, QFD Green Belt®, Director, QFD Institute, USA.

Keywords: QFD Cost Deployment, Price Reduction, Value Engineering (VE), Reverse QFD, Customer Value

Though most QFD studies focus on improving customer satisfaction by increasing the functionality or performance of the product, in these difficult economic times, "low cost" and "price" have become important elements in purchasing decisions. QFD offers a new approach to this challenge, by enabling companies to remove functions and performance that add little value to customers, bringing features in line with the benefits they give the customer — as defined by the customer. This paper discusses Cost Deployment, which was integrated by Dr. Akao in late 1970s but has never gained much traction outside Japan, as well as review additional tools that companies can use for Cost-Cutting based on Reverse-QFD, Value Engineering, and others methods.

2009 Gemba Visits / Machine Tools / International Operations

Globalizing Gemba Visits for Multinationals Businesses

Nicklas Bylund, Ph.D., QFD Black Belt®, Sandvik Coromant, Sweden; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd. and QFD Institute.

Keywords: Need Finding, QFD, Gemba, Product Development, Cutting Tools, Multinational, International VOC

Sandvik Coromant is a leading manufacturer of metal cutting solutions with worldwide presence, with a long history of innovative products. The company has put forward a goal to reduce by half the time from identifying customer needs to achieving peak sales. This paper reports the international customer’s Gemba study (or machine shop in our case), one of the methods in modern Blitz QFD®, translating the Voice of the Customer (VOC) in the market that is culturally and linguistically different, and the differences of applying Gemba in different countries and cultures where Sand-vik Coromant is active.

2009 Food Industry / Process Industry

The Use of QFD to Develop a New Food Offering with a Cross-functional Team—from Consumer Behavior to Formulation and Production

Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd. and QFD Instituteitute.

Keywords: Modern QFD, House of Quality (HOQ), Cross-functional Product Development, New Product Development Process

This paper reports QFD application for food products industry using QFD's consumer- centric processes to enhance its existing product development process and to develop a new product. Traditional tools such as the House of Quality (HOQ) as well as some of the tools of Modern QFD were integrated in this study as well.

2009 Lean Initiatives

Beyond Lean: Evolving into a Super Talent Factory

Yong Yin, Visiting Scholar, University of Texas at Dallas, USA; Kathryn E Stecke, Ph.D., Ashbel Smith Professor of Operations Management, School of Management, University of Texas at Dallas, USA; Ikou Kaku, Ph.D., Professor, Akita Prefecture University, Japan

Keywords: Seru System, Next Generation Lean Manufacturing

Seru is a next-generation, lean manufacturing concept, an evolution of Toyota’s lean philosophy and Sony’s one-man production organization. By using historic cases of many global leading companies (Ford, GM, Toyota, Sony, Canon, NEC and others), this paper reviews various evolutionary processes of manufacturing organizations throughout history, and it then explains what the "seru system" is and how to create and apply it. Finally, we will predict the expected important impacts of seru for industries.

2009 Industrial Product / QFD Training Experience

Thinking Outside the (corrugated) Box

Michael Harrington, Director of Engineering, Alliance Machine Systems International, Inc., USA; Jack ReVell, Ph.D., USA

Keywords: House of Quality (HOQ) QFD, A-1 Table, E-series Tables, 4-phase QFD approach, QFD Training

This paper shares the company's experience in the initial training and applications of House of Quality (HOQ) matrix approach on a project for designing a new industrial product for the corrugated box industry. Included are the steps taken to obtain training, Gemba visits, data translation into a Voice of the Customer Table, use of A-1 table, E-series tables based on the 4-phase QFD approach, and noun/verb function analysis.

2009 Kansei Engineering / Rough Set Theory

Using Rough Set Theory to Efficiently Implement "Choice of Domain” Step in Kansei Engineering

Ali Ahmady, Ph.D. candidate, Wichita State University, USA

Keywords: Kansei Engineering, Rough Set Theory

This paper presents a method to identify the most influential users’ characteristics on different customers’ Kansei when there are inconsistencies of preferences within groups of people in a heterogeneous market for a specific product. These users’ attributes can be used as the bases for customer grouping in Kansei Engineering.

2009 Appendix: Bonus Case Studies

Consumer Encounters: Improving Idea Developments and Concept Optimization

Cathy Rings & Brian Barton, Home Products Division, Rubbermaid Inc.; Glenn Mazur, QFD Institute

Kansei Engineering for Commercial Airplane Interior Architecture

Jeanne Guerin, Payloads Concept Center, The Boeing Company

The Application of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to Design a Course in Total Quality Management (TQM) at the University of Michigan College of Engineering

Glenn Mazur, QFD Institute

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2008: The 20th Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-20-6)
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QFD in Europe 2008

KEYNOTE: State-of-the-art and Case Studies

Georg Herzwurm, Ph.D., Chair of Information Systems II, Universität Stuttgart, certified QFD-Architect of QFD Institut Deutschland, Germany; Dipl. Wirt.-Inf. Sixten Schockert, researcher/lecturer, Universität Stuttgart, certified QFD-Architect of QFD Institut Deutschland,  Germany.

Keywords: QFD in EU, European industry, Volkswagen, T-Systems

The paper provides an overview on the state of the art of QFD in Europe. A general analysis of QFD applications in Europe, based on quality journals and past national and international QFD symposia, suggests regional distinctions in the dissemination of QFD and in the industries QFD has been applied. Also included are case studies from Volkswagen Group, T- Systems, and more.


Value Based Product Development - Using QFD and AHP to Identify, Prioritize, and Align Key Customer Needs and Business Goals

Chad Johnson, QFD Green Belt®, Six Sigma Master Black Belt, TRW Automotive Braking Division World Headquarters, USA; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute / Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.

Keywords: automotive QFD, Modern QFD, customer value, key customer needs, business goals, AHP

Automotive suppliers often build strictly to given specifications or receive data in the old "build to print" paradigm but are also required to design in creative and lean ways. To address this dichotomy and break away from the costly design- build-test iterative loop, TRW Automotive has utilized QFD and augmented it with AHP to develop a working model for project leaders to prioritize and focus their design efforts effectively. This model enables product/process design managers to comprehend, prioritize, and merge various goals of the business with the derived needs of the customers, serving as a central, clarifying centerpiece of project direction while remaining fluid to changing priorities.


Use of QFD & Technology Road Mapping to Develop a Mobile Data Collection System

Dr. Kim Stansfield, Programme Manager, CSC Computer Sciences Ltd., UK; Jeff Cole, Security Architect, CSC Computer Sciences Ltd., UK.

Keywords: QFD for defense industry, mobile data collection system, government project, technology road mapping

This paper discusses the systems engineering procedures used to select and design a 'mobile data collection' sub-system of a larger Enterprise Application Development project for a UK Government Client. The system was required have the capability to systematically log field data and link them with all subsequent treatments and analysis in an auditable manner and meet the requirements of various customer stake-holders. This paper illustrates the benefits of combining QFD processes with the Technology Road Mapping (TRM) process described in the European Industrial Research Management Association (EIRMA) report, Technology Road Mapping Delivering Business Vision. The structured framework incorporating Voice of the Customer methods, QFD, TRM and Pugh Matrix allowed the supply team to rapidly identify the priority critical to quality characteristics for the system and its components, and to develop the engineering requirements from which design concepts could be developed.

Quality Function Deployment at Lockheed Martin MS2

Jorge Pica, QFD Green Belt®, Deputy Program Manager, Lockheed Martin - MS2, USA; Mark Tracy, Electrical Engineering Manager, MS2 Hi-Team Lead, Lockheed Martin - MS2 ., USA; George W. Chollar, PhD, PE, Statistical Design Institute, LLC, USA.

Keywords: QFD for defense industry, government projects

At Lockheed Martin, QFD has been deployed in multiple areas from technical kick-offs to manufacturing process validation. This paper shares a variety of QFD implementations at Lockheed Martin MS2, including power supply design efforts and several hardware, as well as lessons learned, QFD techniques that integrate Parameter Diagrams, Boundary Diagrams and FMEA, and how Lockheed Martin MS2 utilizes these Design for Six Sigma Tools in an integrated fashion to verify robustness and identify risks in its products and processes.

2008 Healthcare Insurance / Financial Products

Predicting Future Health Insurance Scenarios using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)

Carey Hepler, QFD Black Belt®, Innovation Director, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida, USA; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute / Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.

Keywords: healthcare, health insurance / financial product development, market projection, Modern QFD, AHP

This project used a combination of QFD, AHP, and other forecasting tools to look at possible 2008 election and policy outcomes and what new opportunities might be created to service both traditional members of health insurnce products as well as those who are uninsured in the State of Florida. The identified scenarios can be used to map and prioritize different market segments, formulate key customer needs into value propositions, determine strengths and weaknesses in their current competencies and capabilities, and then initiate service quality projects to begin improving those areas where customers will need them most. Several quality methodologies have been used to design successful products.

Using QFD to Understand, Prioritize, and Develop Solutions to Address the Future Needs of Customers

Kathy Hines, QFD Black Belt®, Innovation Leader, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida, USA; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute / Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.

Keywords: healthcare, health insurance / financial product development, market projection, Modern QFD, AHP

This project utilized the QFD methodology to anticipate the changing needs of consumers and how insurance service might evolve. The requirements for the project included: Understanding the future-state of the industry; Anticipating and prioritizing future member needs as a result of new industry pressures; Developing a well defined goal for the service organization; Identifying solutions that target member needs; Validating solutions from the member's perspective; Selecting the best solution(s) given benefits and constraints; and Implementing solutions that are most valuable to the member and continue to differentiate Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida (BCBSF).

2008 Shipping Industry

Customer-driven Process Improvement in a Shipowner Company: Modern QFD Approach

Aysun Kapucugil Ikiz, QFD Green Belt®, Research Assistant, Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey; Guzin Ozdagoglu, Research Assistant, Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey.  

Keywords: process improvement, requirement analysis, Modern QFD, shipping industry

The main scope of this study is to analyze the operations of a commercial shipping line company to identify improvement opportunities. This paper reports a detailed requirements model of the operation process and improvement areas based on a 'gemba' analysis of internal customers and critical incident reports by external customers.

2008 SOSoftware / IT

Getting AHEAD: Applying AHP for Software Technology Evaluations

Karen Smiley, QFD Black Belt®, Principal Consulting Software Engineer; Elizabeth Kielczewski; and Qingfeng He, ABB Corporate Research, USA.

Keywords: software architecture, AHP, Modern QFD, technology evaluations

Evaluations of software technologies and components can be complicated, and are easily influenced by acknowledged or latent technology biases. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a natural choice for neutralizing these biases, bringing greater objectivity to the evaluations. This paper presents Attribute Hierarchy-based Evaluation of Architectural Designs (AHEAD) methodology through an industrial case study of software technology evaluation which complements the Software Engineering Institute's (SEI) Attribute-Driven Design (ADD) technique by applying AHP for importance ratings and for comparing the prototype implementations.

2008 Appendix: Bonus Case Studies

QFD to Direct Value Engineering in the Design of a Braking System

Jim Dimsey, Hayes Brake, USA, et. al.

Future Combat System Concept Development: Integrating Service and Product Requirements in QFD

Kirk Kirkpatrick, Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control; Maj. Shel Jones, US Army; Glenn Mazur, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.

QFD Addresses The Role of NATO Tactical Aircraft

Suzanne Bergman, McDonnell Douglass Corporation, USA

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2007: The 19th Symposium on QFD & 13th International Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1- 889477-19-2)
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2007 Tutorials

General Theory of Innovation to Design a Superior Corporate Strategy

Greg Yezersky, President, Institute of Professional Innovators.

Why is business success so random? Why can't more companies come up with a successful strategy? What is the connection between strategy and innovation? Is there a robust process to engineer powerful strategies on demand? The General Theory of Innovation (GTI) is just such a theory that can be used for gaining control over the process of innovation. GTI evolved from the Russian-born inventive problem-solving technique called TRIZ.


The Quality Revolution

Glenn Mazur, Executive Director, QFD Institute and International Council for QFD.

The 2007 Symposium in Williamsburg, Virginia, with the 400th anniversary of nearby Jamestonwn, serves a special reminder for what we can learn from history to build a better future. Tracing the history of America's early settlements, this keynote points out how technological advancements led to improved product quality and choice, and how this new found choice of goods inevitably led to a demand for freedom of choice in all aspects of life, the revolutionary path from industrial revolution to to consumer, lifestyle, and political revolutions. QFD is about the Voice of the Customer. Once unleashed, this voice continues to demand more and more from the marketplace and beyond. Those who supply goods, services, and ideas will see that when the customer wins, we all win.

QFD and Knowledge Management: QFD Application on the Development of a Finger Vein Authentication Device

Akao Yoji, Ph.D., Yamagata University, Japan.

Founder of QFD methodology, Dr. Yoji Akao presents a case study on the development of a new finger vein authentication device using the state-of-art near- infrared light transmission technology by Hitachi Omron Terminal Solutions, Ltd. QFD and Knowledge Management were applied to understand the customer needs of a medical application to develop a brand new product for the financial and security industries, enabling the company to enter the new markets successfully.

The Analytic Hierarchy Process: How to Measure Intangibles in a Meaningful Way Side by Side with Tangibles

Thomas L. Saaty, Ph.D., 2007 Akao Prize Recipient, University of Pittsburgh, USA.

One of the best decision-making methods available today, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a mathematically rigorous and yet relatively easy to use multi-criteria prioritization method that has become an integral part of Modern QFD. Dr. Thomas Saaty, Ph.D., renowned architect of AHP, discusses in this keynote the fundamentals of AHP through colorful application examples ranging from estimating the cereal industry market share and dominance of various drinks in the U.S. to predicting the outcome of a world chess championship match (Karpov-Korchnoi match) and U.S. presidential elections (1980: Carter-Reagan; 1992 Perot-Bush-Clinton).

AHP 2007

The Many Faces of AHP - How to use AHP with Different Audiences for Maximum Results

Carey Hepler, QFD Black Belt®, Innovation Director, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida, USA; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute / Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP); healthcare insurance planning; insurance / financial product development; Modern QFD

Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida (BCBSF) is the oldest and most respected health insurance organization in the State of Florida. This paper discusses the company's use of AHP in terms of audience and technology delivery, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each of the technologies when working with the company's constituent groups.


Development of Highly Reliable Valves for H-IIA Rocket  

K. Kojima, M. Matsuda, and K. Yoshikawa of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries; H. Nanri, K. Okita, and M. Fukuoka of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency; Yoji Akao, Ph.D., Asahi University, Japan.

Keywords: QFD; reliability; valve design; aerospace rocket

Reliability of the valve is utmost critical to the space mission, launch schedule, and operational costs. This paper reports a joint project by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency where QFD methods were used to improve reliability of the H-IIA rocket valve design which led to the development of a new model. The presentation will show the QFD approaches, development process for this high reliability valve, and the project accomplishments.


QFD for Effective Business Design

Hideaki Haraga, Business Development Center, Konica Minolta Technology Center, Inc., Japan

Keywords: business function; expectations; business function deployment; relational diagram; business management tool

This paper introduces an example of business function deployment in which expectations and business functions are extracted from the project targets and goals by using a relational diagram. An application method is proposed as a business management tool in which progress is recorded in a matrix of business functions and expectations.

Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) / Government Projects 2007

Context Sensitive Solutions: The Application of QFD for Developing Public Transportation Projects in the U.S.

Theodore Hopwood II, P.E., Kentucky Transportation Center, University of Kentucky, USA; Glenn H. Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, The QFD Institute, USA.

Keywords: Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) and QFD; community Voice of the Customers (VoC); sustainable development; QFD for transportation and civil engineering projects; QFD for public projects; Modern QFD

For many years, the selection of transportation routes, design of roadway features, etc. were based mostly on engineering considerations. QFD has developed since the 1960s a powerful tool set for new product development that enables engineers to listen to the Voice of the Customer and translate the most important needs into design requirements and then assure their quality in the resulting goods and services. This paper will show how QFD tools can be adapted for Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) and Design in road building and other large projects.


Application of QFD to Curriculum Planning of Vocational Education

Catherine Y. P. Chan, QFD Green Belt®; Gail Taylor; and W. C. Ip of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

Keywords: QFD; vocational education; course development; curriculum design; Modern QFD techniques; AHP

This paper proposes a conceptual framework for applying QFD to curriculum planning for vocational education. A study on the content planning of an in-house staff development program illustrates the application method.

Application of QFD in Engineering Education: Assurance of Learning Outcomes Fulfillment

Zbigniew Prusak, Ph. D., Central Connecticut State University, USA

Keywords: engineering education; learning outcomes; Bloom’s Taxonomy; engineering design

Principles of QFD is used in assessment of engineering students’ activities during classroom and laboratory instruction. Twenty two types of student activities were analyzed for their contribution toward fulfillment of thirty learning outcomes. Each type of student activity was also assessed in terms of its level according to Bloom’s taxonomy in senior level courses in engineering design and manufacturing processes.

Design of a Methodology to Elaborate Curriculo CIM of the Industrial Engineer in Spain, Based on QFD

Isabel Melina Balderrama Durán, Institut Quimic de Sarria, Spain / Bolivia

Keywords: Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM); Delphi method; QFD; industrial engineering curriculum design

Developing a methodology that will allow construction of industrial engineering curriculum that teaches Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) technology requires the support of methods like QFD and other tools such as Delphi, Diagrams of Affinity, Analysis of Systematization of the hierarchy, etc. This research uses QFD and Delphi methods to design a CIM curriculum, translating industry requirements into design characteristics of an online course.


Using QFD to Involve All Employees in the Corporate Innovation Process

Kathy Hines, QFD Black Belt®, Innovation Leader, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida, USA; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute / Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.

Keywords: QFD application; innovation process; employee Voice of the Customer (VoC), QFD for diversity; healthcare insurance industry; Modern QFD

Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida (BCBSF) currently has over 9,000 employees, each with an idea on how the company can increase membership, reduce costs, differentiate products and services from our competitors and expand our distribution channel. Random idea creations, however, can become a drag on resources and lead to disappointment among those whose ideas are not utilized. When the Voice of the Customer is used to drive idea creation and selection process, then the diversity of our internal resources can be fully harnessed.


QFD Kano Model for Designing College Women's Dormitory

Yoji Akao, Ph.D., Japan

Keywords: QFD and Kano Model; exciting quality; facility design This paper reports using the Kano Model to find out how various functions and features of a dorm facility are being perceived differently by the student residents and their parents and how this finding can be used in the planning stage of a QFD project. Dr. Yoji Akao, Ph.D., founder of QFD, in presenting this research by his students, discusses how you can integrate QFD and the Kano Model to create customer delights in your product and service.


Fusion of QFD and PLM

Tadao Nakamura, Dassault Systemes K.K., Japan

Keywords: Product Lifecycle Management (PLM)

This paper introduces the fusion of QFD and PLM to aim the smooth and quick digital simulation in the concept stage of the product development. At first, PDM to manage the criteria and standard of various areas made by QFD, then, 3D-CAD simulates various matters with using the specified and quantitative information from PDM seamlessly.

Applying Quality Function Deployment to the Product Life Cycle of an Aluminum Wheel Project

Ja vaid C heema, VP-QA, Molex Interconnect Inc. and Muhammad Hussain, Sr. Mfg. Engineer, General Motors, USA.

Keywords: VOC, PLC, Kako Tora, Pyramid of Human Needs, Kano’s Model of Customer Satisfaction, DRBFM, TQM, BPR, TSS, Balanced Scorecard, Customer Needs Prioritization Matrix, Kiken Yochi, Nemawashi

This study was based on a project for the design, development, production, and aftermarket service management of a cast aluminum wheel program for a Japanese OEM customer. QFD was applied to all stages of a product life cycle.


Requirements for Structuring of Logistic Demands in the Run-up to QFD

A. Crostack, Ph.D., Robert Refflinghaus, Ph.D., Nadine Schlueter, and Katharina Noll of University of Dortmund, Germany

Keywords: requirements; logistics; structure; QFD

In order to develop a customer-oriented logistic facility, the marketing research and developer have to work together. They must take into consideration such requirements as the whole life-cycle identified through market research, in order to achieve optimum in both facility and service. This paper reports a study, conducted by the University of Dortmund Chair of Quality, that aimed to develop a procedure for structuring, analyzing, and displaying unsystematic requirements into a QFD structure in the development of such logistic facility.


Design of the Product Development Process in Cooperation with QFD, TRIZ and Taguchi Method (II)

Hiroyuki Okamoto, RICOH Engineering Process Innovation Center, Japan; Yoshiharu Isaka, IDEA Inc., Japan; Yukio Miyamura, SANYO Electric Evolution PJ Management Gr., Japan; Masaaki Todoroki, Q-teck consulting Co., Ltd., Japan.

Keywords: integration of QFD, TRIZ, and Taguchi

This paper reports the second phase of a joint research which was first reported at 2006 International Symposium in Tokyo. This paper describes an integration flow illustrating the authors' concept for fusing QFD, TRIZ, and Taguchi method by the "function" of a product, a common thread identified among the three techniques, and a hypothetical case study using this technique.

A Framework of e7-QFD as the 3rd Generation QFD in Japan

Kazushi Nagai, T. Ohf uji of Tamagawa University, Japan; Kei Inayoshi, Asahi University, Japan

Keywords: QFD; quality assurance; Taguchi method; TRIZ; Blue Ocean strategy; sustainable growth; QFD research

At the 11th and 12th International Symposium on QFD, the authors proposed a new framework called e7-QFD (evolution 7-QFD) which unites QFD with new quality control tools such as statistical method, strategy plan, and Taguchi method. This paper reports the continuing research and explains the causal relationships of the techniques as well as systematization of e7-QFD.

QA-QFD — The making method in the Quality Table which can be Utilized

Masaaki Todoroki, Consultant, Q-tech Consulting, Co. Ltd., Japan

Keywords: QFD; QA; product development

This paper shows how to make the Japanese-style Quality Table and better utilize it in product development.


Multiple Progression QFD: A Case Study of Cooking Product Functionality at Arla Foods

Thomas Lager, B&L Innovation AB (blinab), Sweden; Åsa Kjell, Project Manager Innovation, Arla Foods, Sweden.

Keywords: Quality Function Deployment (QFD); multiple progression QFD; process industry; Arla Foods; product development

This paper reports a project at Arla Foods, the largest dairy company in Europe. The objective was to advance knowledge of how the production process and ingredients could influence the cooking functionality of a certain dairy product and how to measure such product properties, so that this knowledge could be used in subsequent product developments/improvements. QFD methodology was used to guide and structure the information-gathering processes and to link individual sub-project information.


An Application of 'System’s Near Decomposition' to Software Structure Analysis by 'T2T' Tool for QFD

A. Amemiya; T. Kuroda; M. Yoshikawa; Y. Watanabe, Ph.D.; H. Shindo, Ph.D. of University of Yamanashi, Japan; Y. Anang, Sync-Information System Co., Japan

Keywords: system's near decomposition; QFD tool; software structure analysis; QFD research

Using "Object-Oriented Design" concept, a software tool for QFD can be described as a table made of "function" and "component" viewpoints in the integrated software development environment "Delphi". Authors applied the processes of nearly decomposing a system to the QFD's Quality Table by using "QM3 (Quantification Method III)" in order to decrease the complexity. As the result, the structure of the software tool became more understandable and some design problems have been identified, leading to a re-design of the software tool structure and better design.

IT Service Deployment

Wolfram Pietsch, Ph.D., Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Germany

Keywords: Service Management; IT Service Level Agreement (SLA); Service QFD

In order to survive the outsourcing battle, full potential IT service must shift their focus to the business requirements and needs of their customers. This paper shows how a QFD framework can be utilized in the IT business in order to develop customer-focused products and services encompassing customer requirements, performance criteria, and functions to process improvements.

QFD-based Method to Choose a Suitable CAQ-system

Robert Refflinghaus, Ph.D., University of Dortmund, Germany

Keywords: Computer-aided Quality (CAQ) system; vendor selection

Choosing a suitable Computer Aided Quality (CAQ) system is an important decision for an enterprise because of the investment costs, time and manpower. To support this, we have developed a QFD-based instrument for selecting a CAQ-system. The aim of this instrument is to reduce the choice of CAQ-suppliers from about 100 to three to five.

QFD in the Development of a WIKI: A QFD-WIKI

Georg Herzwurm, Ph.D. and Sixten Schockert of Universität Stuttgart, Germany.

Keywords: WIKI; QFD Application; QFD Knowledge Distribution; QFD Community Building

A wiki is a web based software which allows all visitors of a website to change its content by editing the site online in a web browser. With this key capability a wiki is an easy to use platform for collaborative working on hypertexts. This paper is about the development of a wiki on QFD and all its aspects as the content of the website. The so called QFD-Wiki is not only on QFD, it is also developed using QFD as the product planning method.


Route of the Quality Model: Translating the Voice of the Customer in Process Improvement

Edmundo Eutrópio Coelho de Souza, Telemar Norte Leste S/A, Brazil; Rosangela Maria Pereira Catunda, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Brazil; Claudia Massena Barbara, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Brazil

Keywords: Quality; Route of the Quality; Process Improvement; Voice of the Customer (VoC); Telecom Industry

This paper presents the Telemar Norte Leste – TNL Route of the Quality model, describing the methodology, step by step application process, and the main results achieved. The Route of the Quality is a QFD-based methodology developed to implement actions for improving customer-perceived quality. It is followed by surveys to measure the customer satisfaction and link the important indicators to the customer focus, strategic objectives of the company, regulatory frameworks, and establishment of goals that portray the reality of the company.

The Improvement of Telecom Service Quality Based on QFD

Wei Xiong and Jun Xia, ZheJiang University School of Management, China

Keywords: customer satisfaction (CS); Quality Function Deployment (QFD); telecom service; quality improvement

This paper proposes application of QFD-based Telecom Service Quality Improvement Model (TSQIM) to Chinese telecommunication service.

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2006: The 18th Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-18-4)
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Technology Products 2006

Using a Spec Document, the Customer Voice Table, and a QFD Matrix to Generate a CTQ (Critical to Quality) List

Bruce White, Staff Statistician, QFD Black Belt®, Imation, USA

When all you have to work with is a large specification document and you need to identify what specs are truly important to the customer, the techniques outlined in this paper will help you. Imation, a leading memory device manufacturer, reports how they used Modern QFD to identify from the specs a Critical to Quality List (CTQ), the most important, measurable characteristics of the finished product that are strongly linked to customer requirements. The technique can be very useful for any OEM supplier as well as internal customers.

Pair-wise House of Quality (HoQ) Matrices: Turning poor perception to customer satisfaction

Rituparna Maji, Six Sigma Black Belt, Sr. Quality Consultant, Wipro Technologies, INDIA

During a review of a project for database production support in a financial services company, the customer expressed unhappiness in terms of ‘processes being loose, not being hands-free’ and a host of others. Lacking clear direction from the customer, it became difficult for the team to arrive at any tangible actions. A pair of House of Quality (HoQ) matrices was used in this scenario to convert hazy customer perception to concrete pain areas to focused improvements to Customer satisfaction.

Healthcare 2006

Finding Customer Delights Using QFD

Carey Hepler, QFD Black Belt®, Integrated Market Intelligence, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida, USA; and Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, President, Japan Business Consultants / Executive Dir, QFD Institute, USA

Changes in market demographics and the regulatory environment are creating many new opportunities for health-care and related organizations. As the oldest and most respected health insurance organization in the State of Florida, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida (BCBSF) strives to stay ahead of the competition by using QFD to discover the unspoken customer needs for an underserved portion of our population. QFD has allowed us to convert their needs into new products, services, and features to delight and attract new customers as well as retain current customers. This paper describes some of the new opportunities we are facing, and shows step by step how we are addressing them by understanding the Voice of the Customer and innovating and implementing exciting solutions.

Challenges in Rapid Deployment of New Services in Healthcare

Michael Scutero, Six Sigma Master Black Belt, Quest Diagnostics Inc., USA; Sonja Draganic, Six Sigma Black Belt, Quest Diagnostics Inc., USA; and Angela Rylsky, Six Sigma Black Belt of Quest Diagnostics Inc., USA

This paper reports Project Management activity (PM), new product introduction (NPI), Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), QFD deliverables, QFD application, and case study success. Through careful application of QFD in the early phases of a DFSS activity, the problems in patient outreach/service centers (PSC) have been addressed to ensure patient service satisfaction, generating new, improved services such as personnel redeployments, customer routing, customer flow regulators, supply chain efforts and improved transportation. In addition, we uncover needs & solutions for implementation of these new services to over 40 geographically separated PSC sites in a relatively short time.

Education 2006

QFD-based Curriculum Planning for Vocational Education

Catherine Y. P. Chan, QFD Green Belt®, Institute of Textiles & Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.

Originally set up by the government in the “Golden Age” of manufacturing, the vocational education institutions in Hong Kong are struggling to adapt to the profound changes brought by today's global market. It will show how QFD enables a paradigm shift in vocational education to face a changing world and how Modern QFD tools and methods can be applied to college curriculum design. The paper reports the concept, system, tools and the mechanism of incorporating Modern QFD into curriculum planning, as well as a pilot study using Blitz QFD® to identify important industry- specific knowledge. A Customer Voice Table for identifying the job needs of the clothing industry, Affinity Diagram, Customer Needs Hierarchy table, and Maximum Value Table are also included.

Prioritization 2006

An Analysis of Methods for Prioritizing Design Characteristics in Quality Function Deployment

Marcus J. McLeese, Maintenance Supervisor, Coca-Cola Enterprises, Alsip Operations, USA; and Bruce DeRuntz, Ph.D., Southern Illinois University Carbondale, USA.

This research is of historical interest to those who practice Modern QFD and Six Sigma in understanding the strength and weakness of the traditional QFD math models and how they are different from the methods taught today.

Methods 2006

Controlling Innovation as a Basis for Continuous Success - An Executive Overview of Systemology 

Greg Yezersky, USA

When we design a product or service, we must follow the laws of physical science. Similarly, if we expect business to be successful, we must follow the laws of system evolution. This practice, often done intuitively by business executives, can help businesses achieve continuous innovation if it is better articulated and strategically applied. This paper introduces the General Theory of Innovation (GTI), an evolutionary development of TRIZ for non-manufacturing organizations and general business management.

New Kano Model 2006

Kano Model: The Latest Developments 

Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Executive Director, QFD Institute, Executive Director, International Council for QFD, USA,, USA

The Kano model is often cited by experts in quality, design, and marketing. And yet, it is one of the topics that are often misunderstood. This paper examines the Kano Model, including the latest developments as presented in the October 2006 Kano master class and introduces new application methods and models that are currently being developed by the QFD Institute through its on- going international research.

Appendix I: Bonus Case Studies QFD

Applications in Health Care and Quality of Work Life

Glenn H. Mazur, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd., USA.; Jeff Gibson, Baptist Health System, Birmingham, Alabama, USA; Bruce Harries, TELUS Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Quality Function Deployment for a Medical Device

Glenn Mazur, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.

Making The Neon Fun To Drive

J. E. Fernandez; J. L. Chamberlin; E. G. Kramer; J. H. Broomall; H. A. Rori; R. L Begley, Small Car Platform Engineering, Chrysler Corporation

The Application of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) To Design a Course in Total Quality Management (TQM) at The University of Michigan College of Engineering

Glenn H. Mazur, Adjunct Lecturer, The University of Michigan College of Engineering, Executive Director, QFD Institute, U.S.A.

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2005: The 17th Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-17-6)
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Education / Clothing Industry / BPO 2005

The Applicability of QFD for Designing Vocational Courses for Clothing Industry in Hong Kong.

Yin Ping (Catherine) Chan, Dr. K. Chan, and Dr. S. F. Chan, Institute of Textiles & Clothing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.

This presentation will report how one Hong Kong VETC institution is trying to embark on a new strategic direction through application of QFD to develop new courses that would best serve their customers in this changing global market and to prepare graduates who would carry on the future of the Hong Kong clothing industry.

Lifestyle QFD / Kansei Engineering / Emotional Design 2005

Lifestyle QFD: Incorporating Emotional Appeal in Product Development.

Glenn H. Mazur, The QFD Institute, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd., USA.

This paper will explore an emerging area in applying QFD to lifestyle, image, and psychological needs. The basics approach, easily available software tools, and case studies will be presented, including a review of Boeing's application of these methods to their brand new B787 Dreamliner commercial aircraft, which is priced higher than competitor Airbus and yet is "set to jet past " them, according to a recent article in the Wall Street Journal.

Six Sigma / DFSS 2005

Driving Cultural Acceptance in a Six Sigma Implementation.

Mike Scutero and Doug Conklin, Quest Diagnostics, Inc., USA.

To transition a business that has successfully employed classical Six Sigma DMAIC defect-reduction methods into a business that fully embraces the Lean and Kaizen method-variation reduction techniques requires a re-visitation of the cultural enablers, behaviors and anchors. Often this is easier said than done. This presentation will discuss an interesting application of QFD for identifying the right behaviors to accelerate business performance and translate company values into action.

Supply Network / Logistics Management 2005

Agile Supply Network Transition Matrix: The QFD-Based Tool for Creating an Adaptive Enterprise.

Manisra Baramichai and Emory Zimmer, Enterprise System Center, Lehigh University, USA.

One of the strategies that can help a company make a successful transition toward becoming an adaptive enterprise is to leverage the partnership and create agile supply networks through outsourcing. This research proposes a new QFD-based tool, Agile Supply Network Transformation Matrix, which can be used to relate the change domains with the strategies needed for agile supply network configuration.

Public Projects / Regional Development / Government / EU Compliance 2005

LORD (Local Opportunity – Regional Development) and TASQUAM (Technical Assistance Services Quality Management) : Applying QFD-based Applications for Quality Management of Technical Assistance Services in Regional Development Areas.

Witold Edmond Witowski, Ph.D., Ministry of Economic Affairs & Labor, Poland.

In Poland, over 400 business support organizations have applied for assessment and accreditation from the National Support Systems program overseen by the Ministry of Economic Affairs & Labour since its initiation in 1996. The program provides public financing to regional and local development projects and related technical assistance, training, and other services. EU Directives of Polish regulations also recommend applying quality factors for programming, contracting and evaluating public-financed projects. Hence, a QFD-based methodology was developed to address the specific problems of the Technical Assistance services as well as compliance with the ISO 9001:2000 requirements. .

2005 Appendix I: Bonus Case Studies

QFD to Direct Value Engineering in the Design of a Braking System.

Jim Dimsey, Hayes Brake, USA.

Case Study - Applying QFD for the development of the World’s First High-Quality 3D Home Theatre System.

Pierre-Hugues Routhier, Sensio, Canada.  

QFD's role in Advanced Tactical Aircraft Development.  

Suzanne Bergman, Mcdonnell Douglass Aerospace - East, USA.

How QFD Saved A Company - The Renaissance Spirometry System.

O. Kaelin, P. Bennett, R. Klein, USA.

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2004: The 16th Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-16-8)
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Aerospace / Kansei Engineering QFD 2004

Kansei Engineering for Commercial Airplane Interior Architecture.  

Jeanne Guérin, Human Factor Specialist, The Boeing Company, USA; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute / Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.

Kansei Engineering process was used to ease the difficult task of down-selecting the final interior architecture concept for the Boeing's new commercial airplane that is under development. This paper reports the Kansei experiment performed by the design team, simultaneously with several other methods in a project that is still on-going. To be presented at the symposium are: the Kansei Engineering methodology used for this project including extraction of the Kansei words from a market research study, the Kansei Domain and Physical Domain, examples of Kansei Engineering matrices and software, and the results, as well as the experience and lessons learned by the project team.

Chemical / Packaging 2004

Implementing QFD for Product Development through Action Research.

P. A. Cauchick Miguel, Quality & Methodology Research Group, Faculty of Engineering, Methodist University of Piracicaba, Brazil.

A number of organizations have implemented QFD, but to what degree is a question that is difficult to tell from outside. This paper reports an 'action-oriented' research through a case study of QFD implementation by a flexible packaging film manufacturer.

Critical Chain Project Management / Theory of Constraints 2004

Maximize Shareholder Value in A Growing Economy —How Utilizing Critical Chain Project Management in Your QFD Can Maximize Shareholder Value Through Better Project Management and Getting More Done in Less Time.

Tony Rizzo, Product Development Institute, USA.

This paper proposes extending QFD's scope to include the project team's concerns for schedule and time-to-market, through utilization of Critical Chain Project Management, an application of the Theory of Constraints. Through examples of projects which successfully reduced the development time by 15-25% without increasing risk or resources, this presentation will explain how shifting paradigms in project management could benefit business and introduce technical details on how this can be done.

Modern QFD Methods 2004

QFD for Innovative Companies: Using Voice of Customer to Focus Opportunities.

Glenn Mazur, Japan Business Consultants, USA.

Both marketing and engineering groups complain of the same problems: too many opportunities with too few resources, products too new for customers to define their requirements, and an organization too immature to cope with it all. What is needed is a systematic, repeatable approach to prioritizing projects, allocating human, schedule, and budget accordingly, exploring key customers to discover unspoken needs that can win customers away from the current technology, and organizing management and technical processes to efficiently deliver value to all stakeholders. This paper explores some of the major front end deployments in QFD, including Strategy Deployment, Project Deployment, Customer Deployment, Voice of Customer Deployment, Quality Deployment, and Schedule Deployment, as well as key processes and tools, to achieve this.

2004 Appendix I:  Select Papers from North American Countries

Sensio - The Evolution of a Revolution: QFD Applied to the Development of New Businesses.

Pierre-Hugues Routhier, Sensio, Canada. 

Large Scale System Redesign Using QFD.

Robert Gerst, Converge Consulting Group Inc., Canada.

Prioritizing Customer Needs at Spectator Events: Obtaining Accuracy at a Difficult QFD Arena.

Francisco Tamayo-Enríquez, Arnecom; González-Bosch, Mercadotecnia Estrategia Dirigid; and Javier Santa Cruz-Ruíz, Mexico. 

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2003: The 15th Symposium on QFD (ISBN1-889477-15-X)
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Automotive / Reliability 2003

QFD for Preventing Failure. 

Masaaki Todoroki, Q-tech Consulting Co., Ltd., Japan.

This paper proposes a method that combines FMEA and QFD to address this issue. The proposed method can predict failures and determine the design values and process control values through the use of a quality table, thus determining the conditions for failure prevention. An example of an automotive part development is included.

Concurrent Engineering 2003

QFD, MATE-CON and 3DCE - A Truly Collaborative Product Development Process.

Esteban Guerrero and David Stagney, MIT Leadership in Manufacturing Program, Mexico/USA.

Design engineers look at their supply base to design products as they need to know the supplier's technical capabilities and the price. Concurrent engineering guidelines require companies to design products and processes concurrently. The concept of 3DCE (Fine, 1998) was based on this idea of simultaneously developing the product, process and supply chain. However, the authors have yet to locate a process in industry using this concept. QFD is not really a 3DCE process, but we developed an overarching framework that defines a 3DCE process by utilizing QFD to best read customers’ needs and translate stakeholders’ requirements into attributes and MATE-CON (the Multi-Attribute Tradespace Exploration with Concurrent Engineering tool) to best conduct a tradeoff process among Engineering, Manufacturing, Marketing and other stakeholders.

Concrete and Construction 2003

QFD Application in Concrete Industry.

Emin Arca, Marmara University, Turkey; S. Serdar Yoruk, QFD Green Belt®, Marmara University, Turkey; and Esra Atac of Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey. 

This paper shows an application of QFD in the development of a new plasticizer product used in concrete production. The QFD team used the results of a survey applied to 17 plants in Turkey to prioritize the customer requirements and determine the focus areas of product and related services to achieve high market share and customer satisfaction. The customer's evaluations of the two competing firms were also taken into consideration.

Consumer Electronics 2003

Sensio - The Evolution of a Revolution: QFD Applied to the Development of New Businesses.

Pierre Routhier, Sensio, Canada.

The next chapter in one of the top presentations in 2002. Sensio's world's first Stereoscopic Home Theatre System was the fruit of a four-year effort in QFD and Value Management, which led to an instant success. The next logical step was to bring this immersive experience to larger market venues. Building on their earlier product development success, Sensio again set to invest in understanding and integrating the needs of its customers and partners. This case study follows the different phases of this new product's development, and demonstrate the system developed by Sensio to define which needs are assessed at which stage of the development process to maximize the effectiveness of the marketing and engineering efforts.

Defense 2003

Using QFD to Select an Explosive for an Army Munition.

Richard Rhinesmith and Bruce Williamson, US Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center, USA.  

QFD methodology was used by a team from the U.S. Army's "Excalibur" 155mm artillery munition development program to down-select among several "Insensitive Munition" (IM) explosives candidates. The paper describes the lessons learned from conducting this "real world" effort, where issues such as safety, schedule, cost, expert judgment, and multiple customers and interests compete for supremacy.

The Next Generation Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Robotic Controlled Vehicle: Using QFD to Define the Operational Analysis.

Bruno Eddy and Dave Schroeder, QFD Green Belt®, Applied Research Associates; and Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd., USA. 

In this Operational Analysis (OA), QFD was used to identify and quantify DoD user requirements for the next generation EOD remote controlled vehicle. The OA data was obtained using joint armed service focus groups, surveys, and one-on-one interviews with 322 DoD unit-level EOD technicians. This paper presents the NGEODRCV Operational Analysis, including the methodology, process, and a prioritized list of seventy technical characteristics. This OA identifies user prioritized technical characteristics and desired abilities, and will aid program managers in identifying technology solutions and prioritizing developmental efforts for the Next Generation EOD Remote Controlled Vehicle.

Education, Online 2003

e-Learning System for QFD with improving contents and mentoring in "e-TQM" Project.

Masanobu Yoshikawa, Yoshimichi Watanabe, and Hisakazu Shindo of University of Yamanashi, Japan; Masao Takeshita of Japanese Standards Association; and Naofumi Takayama of SYNC Information System Co., Ltd., Japan.

This research examines the learning patterns of the students participating in the Internet-based e-learning programs in order to develop an effective online TQM course that provides both support and educational ease to the students, as well as evaluation formula and quality control. The result is an e-learning system for an online TQM course that alerts instructors when to update the contents, when to mentor students, and. The finding has been implemented in some of the online courses offered by the Japanese Standard Association.

Government / Public Sector 2003

Large Scale System Redesign Using QFD.

Robert Gerst, Converge Consulting Group Inc., Canada.

This paper will report QFD applications in the public sector large system design. It will describe the consulting firm's experience in using QFD to: 1) analyze and redesign the system of funding and service delivery in providing support for those living with HIV/AIDS in southern Alberta; and 2) analyze the entire social and health services (human services) system for the regional municipality of Wood Buffalo in Alberta; and 3) analyze and redesign the system for providing services to the deaf and hard of hearing in the city of Calgary. The resulting benefits and reactions of the local government agencies are also included in the report, as well as other potential areas of QFD application.

Adapting QFD for Evaluating Employment Initiatives.

Geert M.J. Clijsters, Limburgs Universitair Centrum, Belgium; Maurice J. Oude Wansink, OWP Research, The Netherlands; Ludo M.K. Peeters, Limburg University Centre, Belgium; and Wolfgang E. Baaske, Studienzentrum für Internationale Analysen, Austria.

QFD is applied to obtain quality scores for local employment initiatives, enabling them to monitor, evaluate and benchmark themselves. Calculating quality scores of products (employment initiatives), instead of identifying core quality characteristics (performance measures) expands the standard application possibilities of QFD. However, several methodological issues arise due to this extension of the methodology. In order to overcome scaling problems, the authors introduce a nonparametric approach to scale efficiency.

QFD and Administrative Knowledge Management.

Yoji Akao, Ph.D. and Kei Inayoshi, Lecturer, Faculty of Management Studies, Asahi University, Japan.

This Keynote proposes the use of Knowledge Management to accommodate the short and long-term needs of citizens. Traditional QFD tools such as Scene Deployment, Affinity Diagrams, AHP, and Quality Tables will be employed to identify and prioritize public sector job functions and detailed governmental tasks.

Information Technology / Financial Institution 2003

Quality Infrastructure Improvement: Using QFD to Manage Project Priorities and Project Management Resources. 

James LePrevost, QFD Green Belt®, National City Bank and Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd., USA.  

National City Bank has applied QFD to help identify and prioritize the needs of the customers, and then used these findings to evaluate each IT project for its benefit contribution and degree of complexity to assign appropriate resources. This paper shows customization of the QFD process through the QFD Green Belt® training, development of a list of internal customer needs which became the criteria for determining project benefit, and further development of another set of criteria for determining project complexity and technical skill level required to work on the project. This case study demonstrates how IT projects can be prioritized and optimum human resource assignment can be determined through the use of QFD in order to deliver the greatest value to the customers.

Lean Manufacturing 2003

QFD application for tackling Internal Customers Needs as a base for building a Lean Manufacturing System.

Javier Santa Cruz-Ruíz; Francisco Tamayo-Enríquez, and Verónica González-Bosch, Mercadotecnia Estrategia Dirigid, Mexico. 

In the fast- paced and lean economy that modern manufacturing nowadays has as its environment, the ability to apply QFD tools and principles along the whole manufacturing chain is critical, mainly because: (1) Lean Manufacturing allows no waste and therefore, a complete match between resources and customer needs is required;and (2) Rapid organizational redesign is needed to adapt to the ever-evolving customer needs and therefore company-wide understanding, alignment of purpose and common language (memes) are required.

QFD Theory / Math 2003

Linear Algebra for QFD Combinators - A Tutorial for QFD Practitioners: How to Combine Measurements with Deployments.

Thomas M. Fehlmann, Euro Project Office, Switzerland.

One of the most prominent tools in QFD is the matrix. This paper addresses these two questions: 1) Is the matrix invertible?; and 2) What does it mean when it is? This paper gives answers both from a mathematical viewpoint and from practical experiences.

Service 2003

Prioritizing Customer Needs at Spectator Events: Obtaining Accuracy at a Difficult QFD Arena.

Francisco Tamayo-Enríquez, Arnecom; González-Bosch, Mercadotecnia Estrategia Dirigid; and Javier Santa Cruz-Ruíz, Mexico.

Once customer needs are extracted from customer verbalizations and field observations, it is critical to understand the relevance that each need has to customers. Accurate information must come directly from customers, but sometimes due to the complexity of gemba this information needs to be obtained very quickly. Comparison-based techniques such as AHP may be impossible to perform effectively at some gemba. An effective solution was devised by the authors while applying QFD for improving services at spectator events.

Six Sigma Integration 2003

Keynote: Integration of QFD into Design for Six Sigma. Gregory H. Watson, Business Systems Solutions International, Inc., USA. 

Integration of QFD and DFSS brings power to these weaker links. This presentation describes a Six Sigma Design architecture that uses QFD to structure the design process and apply it as a program management tool across the entire DFSS process, making it the organizing principle and methodology hat links all tools and methods into a coherent whole.

Integration of Comprehensive QFD, TRIZ, and Six Sigma in an Axiomatically Driven Total Product/Process Development System.

Michael Scum, Breakthrough Management Group, and E Domb, PGQ Group, USA.

This paper shows the entire TP2DS (Total Product/Process Development System) from the given condition of a societal need (SN) through the establishment of process variables (PV's). A modified House of Quality will be presented that indicates what scenarios direct the additional application of TRIZ or Six Sigma to the development process.

Software 2003

QFD for Software Development Considering Future Design Risks.

Yuji Kyoya, Kunio Noguchi, Takashi Nakano, Tatsuhiro Nishioka, Software Engineering Center, Toshiba Corporation, Japan.

Many software systems suffer from "frequent specification changes" and "functional requirement-biased Voice of Customers (VoC)." These problems cause future risks such as inconsistency in required specifications and increase in maintenance cost. This paper proposes Software-FMEA to avoid these risks during the phase of requirement analysis. The proposed method also aims to address the Voice of the Managers (VoM) by paying as much attention to it as we normally do to VoC, so as to ensure maintainability and fail-proof future expansion.

The Support of Quality Function Development by the Customer-orientated Evaluation of Software Tools.

Georg Herzwurm and Stefan Reiß, University of Stuttgart Information Systems, Germany. 

This paper reviews available software tools and rates them on the basis of a customer orientated evaluation. The subjects of the paper are (1) a market survey of QFD software tools, (2) the development of a customer oriented evaluation, and (3) customer interviews on the basis of the customer-orientated criteria list which was formerly developed.

Strategy 2003

QFD as a Model for an E-Intelligent Revolution.

Verónica González-Bosch, Mercadotecnia Estrategia Dirigida; Francisco Tamayo-Enríquez, Arnecom; and Javier Santa Cruz-Ruíz, Mexico.  

Organizations must continuously maximize its Organizational Intelligence OI) to learn, and solve problems, and adapt in this dynamic competitive environment. This paper proposes the concept of OI conceptual formula, Speed of change for adaptation capability (S), and organizational E-Intelligence, a fundamental element for E-Businesses success. Looking at a example of, a Mexican dot-com who uses QFD to develop core strategic decisions and redesign, the authors propose that QFD Systems can significantly increase E-Intelligence and help in the development of these characteristics.

Customer Driven Strategy: Solving the Fuzzy Front-End Using Outcome Based Segmentation and Innovation.

Robert Hunt, Ph.D., Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia; and Mike Walker, Customer Driven Strategies Pty Ltd, Brisbane, Australia.

Approaches to strategy using QFD principles provide a coherent methodology that has been successfully applied by many organizations both large and small. This paper focuses mainly on the issues in the fuzzy front end of strategy, and gives an overview of the rest of the strategy process.

Business Priorities and Quality Function Deployment: A Case Study.

Tan Kay Chuan and Vijayalakshmi Raghavan, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Puhazhendi Kaliyappan and Ravi Ramaswamy, GE Medical Systems, India.  

This paper integrates the two concepts of circle-of- control and the effort-impact matrix into QFD. The purpose is to help businesses to objectively analyze the feasibility and organizational efficiency of implementing the technical attributes. A case study done at GE Medical Systems, India, is presented. The case brings to light the advantage of this new perspective in achieving operational excellence and customer satisfaction. 

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2002: The 14th Symposium on QFD (ISBN1-889477-14-1)
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Automotive 2002

QFD to Direct Value Engineering in the Design of a Braking System.

Jim Dimsey, QFD Green Belt®, Hayes Brake, USA;  Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute / Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.

In designing a new braking system, QFD was used to determine the importance of various functions of a braking system and performance levels to users, and subsequently to design both a lower-cost alternative as well as a high performance model. This paper will present the customer evaluation process including a web-based questionnaire, the deployment through the House of Quality to a Function Analysis, multiple cost modeling studies, and the design concepts that were created and proposed to the OEM.

Commodity / Materials 2002

Improving Technical Support to Make Commodity Products More Competitive. 

Henry Hearon, QFD Green Belt®, GCC Rio Grande, USA; Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, QFD Institute / Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.

How does one take a commodity that is essentially unchanged for hundreds of years and develop a competitive position that is based on something more than a cheap price? GCC, a cement company from Mexico with expanding sales in the US, used QFD to create the customer value that set them apart from competitors without resorting to a bottom price. This paper details the journey that started with well planned Gemba visits, as well as a one-year follow up to this QFD study.

Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) 2002

Integrating QFD and Design for Six Sigma.

Charles Huber, QFD Green Belt®, Seagate Technologies, USA.

Amid the shift from inspection-based quality to design-based quality, zero defect or 3ppm defect levels are being achieved by design through QFD, design of experiments, failure mode analyses, and other quality tools. Even greater gains can be made, however, when DFSS is combined with QFD to assure not just an absence of defects, but true value as defined by the customer. This case study will present how the goals of DFSS can be achieved and surpassed through the complimentary usage of QFD.

Electronics / Entertainment 2002

Case Study - Applying QFD for the development of the World’s First High-Quality 3D Home Theatre System.

Pierre-Hugues Routhier, Sensio, Canada.

You found a concept for a revolutionary new technology. You develop this technology and apply it to a product with intent to sell. This is more or less how technological start-ups traditionally roll out a new product to the market. The problem with this approach is that you have not necessarily accessed the needs of your customers. Aware of this pitfall, Sensio, a Montreal-based immersion technology company took a different path and selected QFD to do the task, in addition to Parametric Paired Comparison tools, focus groups and trade shows to collect the Voice of the Customer. A QFD case study on a brand new product - the world's first high- quality 3D home theater system. 

Education 2002

Deploying and integrating education system indicators with QFD - An Application Case.

Ricardo Hirata Okamoto, Provisional QFD Black Belt® and José Carlos Arce Riobóo, Provisional QFD Black Belt®, Keisen Consultores, S.A., de C.V., México.

This paper presents the Comprehensive QFD approach that has been undertaken at the Education Ministry of the State of Guanajuato in México (SEG) in order to identify specific strategies for improvements in the nation's educational system and manage them. The study will examine a various indicators of the educational delivery system including the central and local governments, internal processes of the management, administration, schools, and financial and societal impacts. The final phase of this effort will use the Balanced Score Card to implement a management information system that would monitor the whole educational indicators system, as well as SAP (Systems, Applications and Products in data processing).

Healthcare 2002

Keynote: How a Successful QFD Project for a Niche Product Eventually Changed the Entire Organization.  

Todd Hoff, CEO, Continental Rehabilitation Hospital, San Diego; Ed Chaplin, M.D., Provisional QFD Black Belt®, Continental Rehabilitation Hospital San Diego, USA.

Using Comprehensive QFD, a niche product in healthcare was redesigned. The result doubled the service volume and led to another project – redesign of the core competency of physical rehabilitation services. The paper will report the application of QFD as a path provider for the hospital’s financial success, the 3-yr progress and challenges.

Strategy 2002

Using QFD Principles to Develop Vision, Mission and Top Level Strategy.

Fernando B. Xavier, Schindler Lifts Australia Pty Ltd, Australia; Robert A Hunt, Ph.D., Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.

This paper describes a current case study of the application of a comprehensive QFD based strategic planning methodology to develop the vision, mission of an organization, and deploy the key strategies for implementation . .

Supplements I: Featured QFD Case Studies and White Papers

Gemba Research in the Japanese Cellular Phone Market

Bagel Sales Double at Host Marriott

Using Quality Function Deployment Defining Customer Needs for Brand New Products

QFD for Unprecedented Software

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2001: The 13th Symposium on QFD (ISBN1-889477-13-3)
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Aerospace 2001

Performance Excellence - A QFD Approach.

James P. (Jim) Walden, Boeing Airlift and Tanker Programs.

This QFD analysis was undertaken to help Boeing Airlift and Tankers better understand how well the How's (A & T's major thrusts and initiatives) address the What's (the 18 items within the Criteria for Performance Excellence), analyze relationships for synergy/trade-offs, identify gaps and redundancies, and bench-mark progress against other organizations through competitive comparisons. .

Parametric Paired Comparison: A New Methodology for Rapid and Accurate Customer Needs Assessment.

Pierre H. Routhier, Pratt & Whitney.

In a technical environment where complex customer needs go far beyond "verbatim," assessment of needs and relative weights can become a daunting task. Facing these realities, a relatively simple yet powerful methodology - Parametric Paired Comparison (PPC) - was developed, to analyze and highlight critical customer needs in a fraction of the time, while eliminating bias and subjectivity. The methodology, which can be used for such complex products as aircraft jet engines, power generation systems and electronic devices in 1½ to 2 days, will be described in this presentation through real-life examples, as well as implementation guidance.

High Tech / Software / Telecommunication 2001

QFD Killed My Pet (Project) - Using QFD to Confirm Market Needs for New Technology.

Dwight Delgado, Fusion UV Systems; Glenn Mazur, Japan Business Consultants. Ltd. 

We assumed customers would be as excited as us about the advanced technology of our new product. We were surprised at what they told us during our QFD-guided customer visits early in the development. To avoid disaster, we had to rethink our strategy and redesign a more successful product line. This paper shows how QFD can save high-tech companies from making costly market decision errors by determining customer benefit of a new technology or features before it actually commits resource.

Integrated "Demanded Quality Deployment and Quality Function Deployment (QFD).

Rajendra Prasad, Tata Consultancy Services, USA and Gargi Keeni, Ph.D., Tata Consultancy Services, India. 

The global competition among software companies increases the risk of not knowing what your customer needs are. The traditional zero bugs definition of software quality is insufficient to discover the latent needs of the customer in order to sustain this competitiveness. This paper will use Demanded Quality Deployment and a Quality Plan to identify customer needs and translate them into solutions.

Integration of Assembly Requirements in Early Stages of Product Planning.

Dipl.-Ing. Stefan Berger and Dr.-Ing. Jürgen Hoffmann, Fraunhofer-IPA/TEG, Germany.

In simultaneous engineering, consideration for assembly issues is important in the early stages of product development. QFD was used to identify, substantiate, and rank internal customer wants concerning the assembly process. QFD was also used to identify possible target conflicts with quality features. This paper shows how designers of a leading Chinese telecommunication systems company use QFD to efficiently assess the as-assembly design in the design process.

Technical Services 2001

Applying Quality Function Deployment to Align Customer Needs to A Technical Service.

Ian Ferguson, Ian Ferguson Associates, U.K. 

A technical service organization often fails to understand major wants and needs of its customers. Sometimes the customer is not used to expressing the needs in a readily perceivable way. Using examples of how customers typically describe their situations, ways to interpret these statements, keys to assigning target values that measure benefit to both parties, and most important of all, what a technical service organization should be doing, are shown to be vital to consumer care and a profitable business.

Defense and Government 2001

Future Combat System Concept Development: Integrating Service and Product Requirements in QFD.  

Kirk Kirkpatrick, Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control; Maj. Shel Jones, US Army; Glenn Mazur, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.

The US Army must consider the requirements of many new fighting scenarios in order to build adequate com-bat systems. QFD is used to better understand and prioritize mission requirements, translate them into system requirements, and then select the most promising technologies for further design and development. Lockheed Martin, a major weapon systems supplier has collaboratively guided them in this effort.

QFD within a Command & Control Environment.

Peter Kimber, Perspective Solutions, Inc., Sweden.

The rapidly changing political-military situation in NATO's area of interest and adjacent regions creates a wide variety of risks to be considered across the full spectrum of military operations in peace, crisis and armed conflict. The multi-directional and multi-faceted nature of the resultant risks requires a flexible planning process with a high degree of responsiveness for the command and control coalition operations. This case study presents the essential role QFD plays in NATO's Guidelines of Operational Planning and Command & Control process.

QFD and The Office of Homeland Security.  

Glenn Mazur, QFD Institute, USA.

The September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon and the passenger-led crash in Pennsylvania have led the President of the United States to form a new Office of Homeland Security. While QFD is not new to the US government, its use has mostly been within the command structure of a single entity, rather than across the very independent agencies of the Executive Branch or the Constitutionally independent Legislative and Judicial branches. This paper is a "call to arms" to the many QFD specialists within the government to use their talents to support the President's initiative to develop and implement effective homeland security activities.

QFD as Business Strategy 2001

Keynote address: Roles of Executives in QFD.  

Mr. David Harbourne, President, Fusion UV Systems, Inc.

At this world's premier supplier of UV curing systems and services, QFD is positioned as a business strategy necessary to stay ahead of the rapidly changing business environment. Mr. Harbourne talks about the role of the executive as change agent in implementing QFD and the need for the executives to take risk and lead.

BEST Deployment: Desperately Seeking an Integrative Solution for Critical Times.

R. Edgeman, Ph.D., University of Maryland; D. Hensler, University of Colorado - Boulder; Glenn Mazur, QFD Institute.

This paper examines environmental, economic, social, and technical sustainability as a model for future business excellence. It tries to link best business practices as defined by EFQM, Baldrige, and even Deming to the future of humanity. QFD can light the path for both sustainability and customer satisfaction.

QFD in General Industry 2001

Special Lecture: Customer Segmentation and Identification of Market Research Factors for QFD.

Greg Watson, Chairman, American Society for Quality.

High tech products earn the bulk of their profits from the mainstream purchasers whose needs differ from those of the initial purchasers. This paper will use a new criteria - willingness to purchase - to segment customers, and links this to breakeven time, and a new dynamic interpretation of Kano's model. A case study of a computer switching system will be used to illustrate.

Customer Voice Board.  

Frank Zeihsel, Ph.D., enbiz gmbh, (DE).

Today customer contacts occur at all levels and functions of an organization. This paper presents Customer Voice Boards, a systematic approach that connects the principles of systematic knowledge management with tools of computer supported cooperative work (CSCW). Knowledge management adds to the concept of Customer Voice Boards single processes of handling knowledge in the enterprise as well as the frame conditions needed for a successful implementation of these processes.

Measurement Dimensions within the Kano Model of Customer Satisfaction.  

Robert A. Spencer, Bergen Brunswig Corporation, California.

In this ongoing research, the Kano model is used to further explore the relationship between customer perceptions about what they would receive and the satisfaction they actually get from the product or service. New findings concerning the weight of customers' expected requirements, how they affect purchasing decisions, what roles they play in customer defections and long-term customer retention and other issues will be re-ported.

Flash QFD! - An Interactive QFD Tutorial.

A. J. Lowe. Ph.D. (U.K.); R.A. Hunt, Ph.D. (AU).

This paper describes the development and testing of an interactive, Internet-based QFD tutorial, which was developed using Macromedia's Flash software.

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2000: The 12th Symposium on QFD (ISBN1-889477-12-5)
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Aerospace / Air Travel 2000

Measuring Competitiveness in Service Design; Decisions based on Customer's Needs.

Dr. Thomas Fehlmann, Euro Project Office AG, IT Quality Group, Switzerland.

Fast decision making is key in today's markets, especially in the airlines industry. QFD, in conjunction with New Lanchester Strategy, provides a means to make difficult decisions right, in very short time. This approach has brought Swissair a means for continuous measurements and focused improvements with a clear and unambiguous metric and is now part of the regular marketing research process.

The Collaborative Innovation (CI) Process

Dr. Larry Zeidner and Dr. Ralph Wood, United Technologies Research Center, US.

The Collaborative Innovation (CI) process, developed at United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), is an integrated collection of best-practice design methods (enhanced and simplified QFD and TRIZ) to support Integrated Product Development (IPD) teams during conceptual design. Over the past 3 years, CI has been applied to a wide range of UTC innovation efforts, enabling an IPD team to: a) focus their innovation efforts on opportunities of the greatest stakeholder value potential, b) use stakeholder value to guide concept evaluation and selection, and c) create a development plan that will reduce risk as quickly as possible.

Automotive 2000

Improving the Nissan "Crew" with Reverse QFD

Noriharu Kaneko, Japan.

The necessity to continue improving quality of a newly development product through QFD will be illustrated by Nissan Taxi Cab "Crew" customer satisfaction survey example. Based on market surveys conducted after the release of a new model, this paper suggests future improvements needed in the next model and a job flow to achieve them.

An Application of QFD to the Shop Floor Daily Routine Management 

Leonardo Pereira Santiago, Flávio de Aguiar Araújo, Lin Chih Cheng, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

How QFD was used for assuring the quality of shop floor management in the daily routine of a manufacturing firm. Shows how QFD can help the shop floor solve the negative voice of customer by selecting the main working place of the manufacturing process.

Enlarging QFD Methodology to Include Forecasts of Market Share and Profit

Harry E. Cook, Head, Department of General Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.

Taylors expansion in market segment provides a rigorous phenomenological basis for making value versus cost trade-offs for new product development and yields a straightforward marketing research method for assessing the value of proposed product improvements. Using the first stage of QFD, a list of customer needs are identified and converted into product system attributes. Value curves for key system level attributes are used with cost estimates to make trade- off assessments and also to determine Taguchi's "cost of inferior quality." Through a variety of automotive and construction equipment applications, the paper reviews how well they achieved both variable cost and value needed to assure the bottom-line metrics of market share and profit.

Chemical 2002

Investigation and Research Concerning the Integration of TQM and ISO9000/14000/Responsible Care

Masao Sukuya, Dainippon Ink & Chemical Inc., Yusuke Ito, Naoki Tanaka, Yasutaka Kato and Kozo Koura, Asahi University, Japan.

Integration of quality management (ISO 9000), environment management (ISO 14000), environment, safety and healthy management (Responsible Care: RC) and TQM through application of cross-functional management was tried and proved effective in this chemical industry research, conducted in cooperation with the Kashima Plant of the Dainippon Ink & Chemicals Inc, a certified ISO 9000/14000 organization which strives for RC.

Consumer Products 2000

A Study of Structure of Quality Contribution Degree in Customer Satisfaction

Michiteru Ono, Professor, Tamagawa University, Tokyo, and Noriyuki Neil Takeuchi, Integrated Quality Dynamics, Inc., USA.

This paper presents a more efficient ways to improve customer satisfaction through use of QFD, by identifying attractive quality in satisfied factors, setting moderate quality in dissatisfied factors, and determining low-cost factors. Satisfied and dissatisfied factors are identified; their relationship and influence are analyzed through Factor Analysis and Covariance Structure Analysis for better product development process.

E-Commerce 2000 6. Continuous QFD - Employing QFD in Case of Fuzzy Development Tasks

Georg Herzwurm, Sixten Schockert, University of Cologne, Business Computing, Germany.

When customer requirements are not well-defined and technologies are changing fast, traditional waterfall QFD is inappropriate for product development. Continuous QFD is a method to deal with this situation. This paper describes characteristics of unclear development tasks, translates them into QFD terminology and outlines consequences for the design of Continuous QFD projects. A case study on web-site development applying Continuous QFD will be presented.

Education 2000

Application of QFD to Developing Education Products for Northern Australia Beef Producers

Shane Blakeley, Rural Production Systems Pty Ltd, Mick Quirk, John Bertram, Felicity McIntosh, Queensland Beef Industry Institute, Department of Primary Industries, Bob Hunt, Centre for Management Innovation and Technology, Graduate School of Management, Macquarie University, Australia.

In two separate projects, Meat and Livestock Australia and the Queensland Beef Industry Institute used QFD to determine the education needs of beef producers with regards to beef cattle nutrition and to grazing land management. The first time such a process had been conducted within this industry, the projects provide insights into issues critical to the success of North Australian beef production enterprises. These insights have enabled the organizations to design and deliver education products to enhance skills and consequently profitability of those producers.

Electronics, Computers & Telecommunications 2000

Inspection and Control of Raw Materials Applied to Electronic Ceramics Through the Quality Chart

J.C.S. Dias and P.A. Cauchick Miguel, Quality Management & Metrology Group, Methodist University of Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Brazil.

This paper reports a study of raw material inspection by presenting a methodology to relate technical and managerial requirements. A quality chart has been developed relating technical and ISO 9001:2000 requirements and giving the level of importance of the relationships and identifying which ISO 9001 requirements have more impact on job functions.

Gemba Research in the Japanese Cellular Phone Market

Eric Ronney and Peter Olfe, Nokia Mobile Phones.

The advantages for a mobile phone company of doing research in the Gemba are first explored. The paper then describes a research project that was carried out in Japan and describes how the research was designed to try to overcome the potential barriers posed by customer culture in order to obtain the maximum benefit from the research.

Healthcare, Medical Products, Pharmaceuticals 2000

Applying QFD in a Hospital Setting: A Study of Medical Quality

Dr. Yoji Akao and H. Fujimoto, Asahi University, Japan.

The application of QFD in service industries concerns itself not only with quality as valued by the customer, but must also consider quality of the service operations themselves. Similarly, a medical facility must consider both the societal role of the hospital and the actions necessary to assure the health of the patient. This paper will demonstrate that metrics for clinical staff quality can be incorporated in the various QFD charts to clarify, evaluate, and manage medical quality. 

Use of QFD to Develop Sales in a Medical Materials Market

Fatih Yenginol, lecturer, Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Business, Turkey.

A multinational medical materials producer, the major player in its market, is seeking ways to develop its sales. The sales department of the company has determined the gaps in the market. In this way, the company is going to be able to fill in these gaps with the help of Quality Function Deployment process.

Introduction of QFD Method to Our Original Medical Quality Improvement (MQI) Activity in Nerima General Hospital

T. Takahara, M.D., Dept of Surgery, S. Iida, M.D., President, and M. Fujimori, Nerima General Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Since 1996, Nerima General Hospital has been executing their own Medical Quality Improvement (MQI) Process to improve quality and function of medical care. QFD and FMEA are a part of this year's declared focus. This paper presents introduction of QFD to our MQI activities which resulted in good outcome in both external and internal customer demands.

Software 2000

Software Quality Improvement by Quality Function Deployment

Yen-Fang Chu, Graduate School of Resource Management, National Defense Management College, Huey- Der Chu, Department of Information Management,and Shan-Fa Wang, Taiwan, ROC.

The cost of quality refers to the cost incurred due to compliance and non-compliance to requirements. Considering this imbalance among the cost of quality, this paper introduces Quality Function Deployment (QFD) into the Information System Planning to decrease the failure cost and improve the quality of the software development process.

QFD and RequisitePro

Stuart Lesley, SiloSmashers, USA.

QFD is a powerful method for bringing the voice of the customer to the entire organization. We have developed a way to physically link the results of QFD into the beginning of the design process. This method not only preserves the QFD effort, but also provides traceability throughout the solutions design and development life cycle.

Training and Consulting 2000

Implementing TQManagement in a Multiculture Ambience

Dr. Tarik Sulimani, Vice President, TQM & HR, Advanced Electronics Co., Dr. Nasreen Al-Dossary, Assistant Manager, Saudi American Bank, Saudi Arabia.

Implementing TQM in developing nations with heavy reliance on foreign manpower is a challenge. This paper points out cross-cultural sensitivities, highlights obstacles organizations may face and how to overcome cultural barriers. It describes the TQMization approach and implementation measures that can take place based on a study conducted in Saudi Arabia.

A Review of Applied Human Factors Techniques for Product Designers in Identifying the Voice of the Customer

Chee Weng Khong, Centre for Collaborative Multimedia, Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University, CyberJaya, Malaysia.

This paper addresses the human factors methods or techniques applied by designers throughout the product development process in identifying and to elicit customer trends and preferences, and map social and technological directions. A simple matrix diagram is proposed to support and aid the designer's awareness of appropriate human factors techniques to be applied. 

General Model of Continuous Improvement Programs: Creating Fractal Organizations

Francisco Tamayo-Enríquez, Quality Assurance Department Chief, Axa Yazaki, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 

Recently, fractal models are achieving success in modeling complex natural phenomena. If organizational dynamics are natural phenomena, there is the possibility of having a Generalized Model of Continuous Improvement Programs based on a fractal model. This will lead to Fractal Organizations through deployments, such as QFD and Policy Management, able to preserve the appropriate form and complexity at all different levels. 

Minimum Information Loss Evaluations for QFD

Ed Dean, The DFV Group, USA.

QFD has come under attack because of the means used for evaluation. Research has shown that individual preferences are not preserved by typical joint evaluation methods and has associated preference retention with information retention. This paper defines a generalized information for preferences, obtains the minimum information loss joint preference, and compares this approach in a QFD example with an evaluation approach recommended by voting research.

QFD is a Catalyst, not a Process; A New Way to Look at QFD

Dilworth Lyman, ViewPoint & Understanding Enhancement, USA.

This paper looks at the types of processes you can mix with QFD, what results and how it can even improve a bad process, and the elements of QFD as they mix with the elements of other processes in many disciplines and show that there is no one right way to do QFD. 

General Industry / Service 2000

Using the Gemba to Improve the Usefulness of FMEA

John T e rnin ko, Re sponsible Man agement, Inc., USA.

A system's goal is to use its properties and functions to satisfy some need of its environment. Understanding these perspectives in the Gemba will yield a profound improvement on the usefulness of the associated FMEA. All potential failure modes and root causes often missed will be identified.

Hoshin and Strategic QFD Organizations: Where are they now?

Dr. Robert A Hunt, Director, Centre for Management Innovation and Technology, Graduate School of Management, Macquarie University Sydney, Australia.

This paper reports on two organizations with more than three years applying Hoshin and QFD principles to their strategic transformation system (STS) and/or their offer innovation system (OIS). It addresses: How have these organizations benefited from applying QD? How have their systems evolved? What are their plans to further apply the principles? What would they have done differently and why? Have the QD systems become "the way we do business around here?"

The Quality Concert: A Multiple-Parameter Matrix Analysis

Jack ReVelle, ReVelle Solutions, LLC, USA.

Several concepts, all QFD-related, are analyzed using a Y-shaped, multi-parameter matrix to determine the extent of their interrelationships. These concepts are the Kano Model and the Quality Concert composed of two parts, the Quality Quartet and the Quality Chorus. The Quality Quartet has four voices: that of the customer, engineer, manager, and the process. The Quality Chorus has three voices: that of society, government, and environment. The resulting model insures awareness of important factors in, around and about the marketplace.

The Universal Method for Technology Forecast: Does the Panacea Exist?

Iouri Belski and Vladimir Shapiro, Department of Communication and Electronic Engineering, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

This paper analyses the dependence of methodologies of forecasting on the requirements of the designer. The variety of outcomes of a process of forecasting is considered: from prediction of future characteristics of system elements to potential scenarios of systems and super-systems of the future.

Strategic Product Family Development by Extending the House of Quality

Juergen Hoffmann, Fraunhofer Technology Development Group, Germany.

The extended House of Quality does not use single specifications to define product families - instead specification classes are formed. These specification classes encompass the area within which the specifications for all the products in the product family are contained. Experience has shown that it makes sense to form three specification classes, and combine these with factors such as cost and competitive comparisons for defining the specifications for product families from a strategic market perspective.

Customer and market input for product program development

Knut Aasland, Detlef Blankenburg and Jarl Reitan, SINTEF Industrial Management, Norway.

Which models and variants do we really need? To what degree can an attractive product make variation less necessary? To answer this, a deep understanding of customers and their behavior and decision patterns is important. Since this is not what designers and project managers in industry typically excel at, methods and tools are necessary.

QFD 2000: Integrating Supporting Methodologies into Quality Function Deployment

Glenn Mazur, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd and QFD Institute, USA.

Competitiveness in the new millennium may belong more to those who can integrate a multitude of disciplines into a system, rather than to those who expect a single tool to do it all. The House of Quality is really more of a "great room" to which various "outbuildings" and other structures must connect. This paper shows where well-known quality and other tools such as Consumer Encounters, New Lanchester Strategy, Kansei Engineering, Theory of Constraints, TRIZ, Voice of Customer Analysis, FMEA, SPC, and other methods can be integrated into the New Product Development Process.

Leveraging TRIZ to Combine Ideas into Implementable Concepts

Dana Clarke, Ideation International, Inc. USA.

Enhance the value of ideas via the integration of QFD and TRIZ to create “super concepts.” TRIZ offers newly-developed techniques for combining complementary or competing ideas, thereby raising the effectiveness of the QFD process to meet and exceed customer expectations.

QFD with an Attitude! - "Obsolete your products so your competitors can't"!

D Verduyn, C2C Solutions, USA..

This paper illustrates: 1) Compelling Innovation and Value Optimizing Algorithms for breakthrough ideas, 2) Patented AI Semantic Processing tools to create & retain corporate technical knowledge, and 3) FMEA so your impressive ideas don't fail!

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1999: The 11th Symposium on QFD (ISBN1-889477-11-7)
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Aerospace 1999

Variability Reduction: A Common Ground for Integration of Advanced Quality Tools and Processes

David Novick, Technical Advisor Electronic Systems & Missile Defense, The Boeing Company.

This paper presents how the author used QFD, Continuous Quality/Process Improvement, Kaizen, TRIZ, Theory of Constraints, Shewhart's SPC to establish a Variability Reduction Plan and Pathway.

Architecture 1999

The Use of QFD for Architectural Briefing & Design

Dirk Conradie, Project Leader & Kirsten Kusel, Research Architect Division of Building Technology, CSIR, South Africa.

The paper describes the integration of the new QFD concepts with traditional methodologies from the domains of QFD and Systems Engineering and Concurrent Engineering within a software environment.

Automotive 1999

QFD for Manufacturing Technology Assessment

Edward Vinarcik, Engineer, Visteon Powertrain Control Systems, USA.

Choosing a manufacturing technology is difficult. Customer needs as well as technology limitations must be understood. This paper presents a case study in which QFD is used as an analysis method for evaluating manufacturing technologies for a specific product, automotive fuel rails. Included is a discussion of customer types and needs related to design, cost, delivery, and timing.

QFD Applications in Brazilian Autoparts Companies

Paulo Cauchick Miguel, P.T.M. deSouza, & C.J. deSouza, Quality Management & Metrology Group - Methodist University of Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Meritor do Brasil Ltda. - LVS Division, & Eaton Ltda. - Divisão de Transmissões.

This paper describes QFD implementation initiatives carried out in two auto parts companies in Brazil.

QFD in Strategic Planning: An Exploratory Study

Paulo Cauchick Miguel & R.M. Vanalle Quality Management & Metrology Group, Methodist University of Piracicaba (UNIMEP) A.G. Alves Filho, University of Saõ Carlos, Brazil.

This paper examines an exploratory study in which QFD is used for strategic planning formulation. QFD matrices are applied to relate business strategies and functional level strategies.

Consumer-Based™ Performance Benchmarking

Kioumars Paryani and Terry Zalewski, General Motors Corporation GM Truck Group, Vehicle Integration Engineering.

The authors of this paper present a unique approach to benchmarking and target setting throughout the lifecycle of the product. Tools utilized in this methodology are derived from established quality engineering practices and tools, such as the Taguchi Quality Loss Function, Quality Function Deployment, Focus Group Methodology in consumer research, and the critical path method (CPM).

Crisis and Disaster Management 1999

The Application of Augmented QFD to the Evaluation of Emergency Plans

Chakib Kara-Zaitri & S. Al-Daihan, University of Bradford, UK and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia.

This paper describes a method for evaluation of emergency and crisis management

Communications and Media 1999

Contextual Usability, Domestication & QFD

Derek Nicoll, Research Fellow, The University of Edinburgh Management School.

This paper considers the importance of context in capturing the voice of the customer, and enhancing it with information on how products domesticate into homes and offices.

Consumer Products 1999

Brand Engineering using Kansei Engineering and QFD

Glenn Mazur, Industrial and Operations Engineering and Jeremy Brochtner, Interdisciplinary Program in Engineering and Industrial Design, University of Michigan.

This paper integrates kansei engineering with brand management, industrial design, QFD, and other quality tools to yield a more robust approach that can bring together the marketing, art, and engineering professions.

Education and Library Sciences 1999

Model Improvement Process in an Educational Environment

Brian Stitt and John Sinn, Bowling Green State University.

This paper summarizes a student research on how student teams used the QFD methodology to research, develop, and implement the plan to progressively deliver an improved Technology course in an on-line format.

The Application of QFD Principles to Student Learning using a Group Decision Support System in School Education

Wilhelmina Hunt, Reading Insight, Australia.

This paper suggests how to use QFD principles to the students learning using a Group Decision Support System.

Solving Problems with Method of the Ideal Result (MIR)

Iouri Belski, Department of Communication and Electronic Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

This paper introduces an application of Method of the Ideal Result (MIR) to service. MIR is based on the TRIZ concept of the Ideal Final Result (IFR) and can be effectively used for service development and evaluation. T

Improving the Scales Used in AHP for QFD

Frank Moisiadis, Centre for Advanced Systems Engineering, Macquarie University, Australia.

Studies done in the field of Library Sciences and MBA education have revealed certain weaknesses in Dr. Saaty’s 9-point scale, since many psychologists believe people do not mentally perceive attitudes as a single point, but rather as a range of acceptable values.

Electronics, Computers, and Telecommunications 1999

Interpretation of VOC with Concept of Quality in Multi-Levels: An Enhancement for QFD for Innovation

Chong Pui-yik, Steven School of Design, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

This paper presents the author's view that the concept of quality in multi-levels, Owen’s Quality Pyramid Model, can be used to establish the usable information of desired quality attributes as enhancement to turn the vibration of voice of customer (VoC) into certain manageable newness.

Deploying Corporate Vision using a Structured Methodology

Steve Seeman, Director of Quality Assurance EFData & Alan Leeds, EFData Subsidiary of California Microwave.

Challenged by a newly appointed CEO to improve operating cost and increase customer satisfaction, California Microwave embarked on initiatives to achieve quantum improvements toward world class operating levels. A customized software program was developed to access customers opinions, customer responses resulted in forming teams to address the top three attributes and identifying real customer needs, reduced non-value added activities, improved quality, and shorter cycle times.

Interface of Lanchester Strategy & QFD

John Schuler, Lanchester Press.

Brief overview of Lanchester Strategy, Lanchester Equations, Lanchester's principle of concentration, Koopmans global warfare and development in Japan of total marketing warfare. Cases discussed include HP-Xerox-Canon in a fight over the copier market and mergers and acquisitions in the CMP sector of the semiconductor market.

Entertainment 1999

Jurassic QFD

Andrew Bolt, MD Robotics and Glenn Mazur, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.

Universal Studios Florida has just opened its Jurassic Park amusement park. One of the highlights is the Triceratops Encounter, a "live" animatronic interactive dinosaur "petting zoo." The animatronics were built by the company that makes the robot arm for the Space Shuttle. This paper describes the company's use of QFD to develop animatronics that are "totally convincing... it flinches, breathes, snorts, drools, moves, blinks just like it were alive."

General 1999

Hoshin Planning, QFD & TQM

Robert Hunt, Director, Centre for Management Innovation and Technology, Graduate School of Management, Macquarie University, Australia.

From field analysis of 47 organizations, this paper develops a diagnostic that positions an organization’s strategic planning system and then uses the diagnostic to provide important insights into the relationship between success, and the adoption of quality principles, hoshin kanri and QFD.

QFD as a Corporate Memory Structure

Greald Henstra, Faculty of Management and Organization, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

Parallel to creating products, the R&D process results in knowledge. Usually a great deal of this knowledge remains tacit. This paper suggest using QFD to serve as a communication structure, incidentally upgrading its role within the play of product development.

Experiences with the reliability and Validity of the Kano Method: Comparison to Alternate Forms of Classification of Product Requirements

Elmar Saurwein, Assistant Professor, Department of Management, University of Innsbruck, Austria.

This paper tries to examine the reliability of test-retest, alternate forms and stability of interpretation. Furthermore concurrent, predictive and convergent validity were tested. Other methods of classification were tested, too. The results are supportive for the Kano model.

Making QFD Efficient

R Hales, Pro Action Development.

This paper presents the sometimes-heretical lessons that the author learned by applying QFD over nine years with essentially the same team and on multiple product generations.

The Politics and Partisanship of VOC

M. Larry Shillito.

This paper discusses the company-customer balance, VOC principles, vertical VOC, evolutionary/revolutionary VOC, customer chains, supply- demand model of VOC, VOC fit to the commercialization process, and acid test questions for initiating a VOC study.

Industrial Products and Heavy Industry 1999

Customer Chart: An Efficient and Effective Way for Structuring Customer Needs

Juergen Hoffmann, Head of Department, Fraunhofer Technology Development Group, Germany.

Fraunhofer TEG has developed a new promising method for structuring customer groups and their needs. Combining elements of the Akao with the 1980s' ASI approach a new effective and efficient way for dealing with diverse customer needs of different target groups is achieved.

Application of QFD in Conjunction with the Goal Function Modeling within the Automation Systems Industry

Prof. Tilo Pfeifer & Dipl.-Ing Rolf Reinecke, Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering (WZL), Aachen University of Technology, Germany.

This paper presents a combined customer and functional oriented methodology based on QFD and Goal Function Modeling (GFM) as well as the first results of application on real life automation projects.

Socially Responsible QFD

John T e rnin ko, Re sponsible Man agement, Inc., USA.

A combined methodology using both QFD and TRIZ is proposed to achieve this higher level perspective.

Using Soft Systems to Identify and Diffuse Cross Functional Conflicts

Jim McMahon, Fresh Venture Limited, UK.

Should the marketers dictate requirements to the manufacturing function, or should operations limit what can be brought to the market? Marketing may give undertakings to customers that operations just cannot accommodate. These undertakings may include lead times and delivery quantities incompatible with the manufacturing system. The successful resolution of these conflicts is important for the long and short-term success of organizations.

Basic Elements of QFD as Key Factors in Life Cycle Engineering

Christiane Rauch-Geelhaar, Manager and Frank Zeihsel, Institute of Manufacturing Engineering and Production Management University of Kaiserslautern, Germany.

In this article the basic elements of QFD, their successful application in industrial practice as well as useful enhancements are described.

Logistics 1999

Aligning the IT Framework to Corporate Strategy

Thomas Fehlmann, IT Quality Group, Switzerland.

New Lanchester strategy and QFD are used in an integrated approach to define standards for the IT framework in large organizations.

Software 1999

Risk-based Deployment of Standard Software Rollout Processes

Dr. Georg Herzwurm, University of Cologne, QFD Institut Deutschland e. V. and Dr. Wolfram Pietsch, ExperTeam GmbH, QFD Institut Deutschland e. V. Germany.

QFD is employed to the tailoring of rollout processes. The risk of project failure is evaluated by means of a set of risk factors. The result is used to select the tasks that address the risk properly, leading to an efficient rollout process.

Training and Consulting 1999

How to Measure the Performance of the Overall Deployment Process

Fatih Yenginol, Research Assistant and Ali Sen, Associate Professor, Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey.

Various forms of deployment processes are being used to solve specific problems in different situations. At the end of these applications, a performance measurement of the overall deployment process has to be made. Thus, a backward revision deployment may be realized. With this paper; a model is proposed for performance measurement and revision of the overall deployment process.

A Statistical Approach to SQC Target-Setting

Kaushik Ghosh, Principal Research Scientist and Lynnette Blaney, Research Scientist, Systems Analysis and Engineering Group, Battelle Memorial Institute.

We present a statistical model for use in target setting and an alternative calculation for Technical Importance based on "satisfaction-sensitivities."

Training and Instructional Techniques for Teaching QFD

K.Becker, Becker Associates.

This presentation covers planning for training and instructional techniques based both on classical learning theories (Blooms Taxonomy) and on new ideas to increase the effectiveness of materials and the instructor's ability to build group rapport, namely the Hoshin Planning and Neuro- Linguistic Programming theories. .

Virtual QFD; Better Comprehensive QFD Training

Dilworth Lyman, ViewPoint & Understanding Enhancement.

This paper discusses the different options for teaching Comprehensive QFD, looking at the primary three axes of Depth, Time, and Applicability. An option called Virtual QFD is explored in detail.

TRIZ/Medical Device 1999

Using TRIZ as a Creative Process for Breaking Patterns

Tore Wiik, Senior Scientist, Sintef, Norway.

Two successful cases in which TRIZ has been used extensively are discussed.

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1998: The 10th Symposium on QFD (ISBN1-889477-10-9)
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Aerospace 1998

The Synergistic Alliance of Systems Engineering and QFD

John M. Marzec of Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power - Boeing North American.

Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power, a business unit of Boeing North American, has developed a Systems Engineering Process. QFD has been identified as a key process within that discipline. This paper primarily focuses on the role of QFD in the Requirements Management aspect of Systems Engineering. The presentation will include a case study involving a transfer orbit propulsion system.

QFD in Aerospace Applications: A Training Exercise

Jack Barke of the Information, Space and Defense Systems, The Boeing Company.

This paper explains a teaching exercise that introduces one to the mechanics of QFD. The basis of the exercise is an actual advertisement and specification for a "heavier-than-air flying machine" put out by the Army Signal Corps in 1908. Twelve exercises are covered that walk the reader through the 4 ASI matrices and also the Pugh Concept matrix.

[Poster Paper]

Method for Optimizing Resources Allocation

James Afarin of NASA Lewis Research Center.

This is a nonlinear model which represents a structured approach to make capital investment decisions based on the priorities of the organization and the quality of outputs. This procedure was applied to a multidivisional organization for the proof of the concept at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio.

Automotive 1998

Application of Quality Functional Deployment to Automotive Fuel System Components

Edward J. Vinarcik of Visteon - Powertrain Control Systems Division.

The purpose of this paper is to apply QFD to an automotive component, specifically a fuel rail. Included is a discussion of needs for internal customers related to design, delivery, and timing.

The integration of Taguchi Design of Experiments and Quality Function Deployment. QFD Methodology and its Application in an Automotive Industry Supplier

P. A. Cauchick Miguel, N. C. Maestrelli, and L. G. Lopes, Jr. of Methodist University of Pircicaba (UNIMEP) and Meritor do Brasil Ltda., Brazil.

This paper presents a work on QFD carried out in an auto parts industry in Brazil. This work also outlines the relation of QFD with aspects of QS 9000 certification. Finally, it points out the principal benefits of QFD application.

Concept Development & Ideation 1998

Consumer Encounters and Idea Development and Concept Optimization

Brian Barton and Cathy Rings of Rubbermaid, and Glenn H. Mazur of Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.

Getting better products faster to customers is critical to the financial success of a company. This paper reports on Rubbermaid's Consumer Encounter Form which was designed to facilitate a brief 2-hour encounter, prioritize product categories and within those, prioritize consumer needs based on the Voice of the Customer, and lead to product ideas. This form flows directly into our Concept Testing Board for use in the consumer concept tests.

Cost Deployment 1998

Cost Deployment to Improve Customer Satisfaction and to Reduce Product Cost

Gerd Streckfuss of Institut fnr QualitStsmanagement Dr. Weigang, Germany.

During QFD sessions, companies in "high-cost" countries request from this method not only to address customers requirements but also to consider the cost issues. Using comprehensive QFD deployment and target costing, the results of case studies are documented and evaluated. S

Computer & Software 1998

Introduction of QFD to "What to Design" Process In Super Design Technology

Kunio Noguchi, Keisuke Nomura, Yuji Kyoya, Yoshifumi Ueda of Toshiba Systems & Software Research Laboratories, Japan.

The development of an advanced product design process dubbed the Super Design Technology to achieve "product on demand" is underway at Toshiba. We have added QFD to this new method in the form of a database that we can quickly access critical information which is often beyond the scope of typical QFD.

Software Availability Reporting System

Ann Burtner of Hughes Aircraft, USA

This paper investigates the establishment of an availability reporting system using QFD as a tool to translate "the Voice of the Customer" (VOC) into a product design. The goal of this study is to develop a software reporting product that customers and the computer vendor may easily view for any anomalies, problem trends, and cyclic outages. The methods used with QFD are VOC, DOE, and SPC.

Using QFD for Computer Aided Design Software Selection

John Chapdelaine and Linda Coveney of The Wiremold Company, USA.

In 1990, Wiremold transitioned to a JIT manufacturing process and institutionalized QFD as its product development methodology. In 1997, Wiremold recognized that its current Computer Aided Design (CAD) system would not meet the needs for future product development. This paper discusses the use of the QFD process to hear the "voice of the customer" for selecting a new CAD system.

[Poster Paper]

Business System Analysis

Joseph Craig of Qualisoft Corporation and Thomas F. Teel of Business Effectiveness, L.L.C.

Business Functions (How) and the Products and Services Processes (What) of a business are defined and correlated by a Team of subject matter experts and facilitated by Business Effectiveness, LLC. The embedded QFD DesignerTM algorithm identifies Products & Service Processes and Business Functions that may be improved for effectiveness and efficiency.

Education 1998

Using QFD to Research the Demanded Quality of Students for Lectures

Professor Kozo Koura of Asahi University, Japan.

This research reports a case study of analysis of "opinionaires" for lecture production control using QFD. The voice of the students was translated into demanded quality deployment and measures deployment was developed from teacher experiments. Importance and weights of planned and designed quality were calculated and a Pareto Analysis implemented. The results were very useful information for the professor.

Using Service Blueprinting and Quality Function Deployment in Restructuring Educational Service Processes

Dr. Klaes Eringa of The Christelijke Hogeschool Noord-Nederland, Leeuwarden and Ms. Isolde L. J. Boer of Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Faculty of Business Administration, The Netherlands.

The Christelijke Hogeschool Noord-Nederland has launched a TQM project aiming to restructure educational processes tailored to students’ needs. QFD translates students’ needs into service process specifications, emphasizing the service encounters. The integration of QFD and Service Blueprinting attempts to improve the student perceived quality of service processes.

[Poster Paper]

QFD in Education: An Instructional Case

Dr. P. A. Cauchick Miguel and Dr. A. Weidmann of Methodist University of Pircicaba (UNIMEP) and SKF GmbH.

This case study presents a simple QFD case study which was used for both undergraduate and post- graduate engineering courses as well as special industrial training courses. The paper shows the feedback from the participants in some of those courses.

Healthcare 1998

A Hospital-Based Service Example of QFD

Edward Chaplin, M. D., Medical Director of Continental Rehabilitation Hospital of San Diego, USA

This paper reports a project to incorporate a customer-focus to a rehabilitation hospital service that provides multi-disciplinary evaluations of complex and/or catastrophic injuries..

House of Quality 1998

An Intelligent House of Quality

Prof. Xiaoqing Frank Liu of the University of Missouri-Rolla.

We have been developing an intelligent HoQ to relieve users of all calculations involved in developing HoQs manually, detect implicit trade-off and impact relationships and maintain their consistency based on fuzzy logic, and enable automatic archival and management of HoQs based on a database system.

Fast QFD: First House of Quality in Half the Time

Mark Farrell of Nortel, Northern Telecom Limited, Canada.

We have developed a method that completes the first House of Quality in half the usual time, by defining two teams, one dedicated to defining customer needs and another dedicated to defining product characteristics. T

ISO and QFD 1998

Environmental Management System on ISO-14000 Combined with QFD

Yoji Akao, Ph.D. and Tetsuya Hayazaki of the Graduate School of Business Administration, Asahi University, Japan.

ISO-14000 is combined with QFD in order to build a better environmental management system. The paper is based on a case study of a construction company with a focus on environmental issues.

Kano Model and QFD 1998

Automated Kano Model Implementation

Kaushik Ghosh, Sanjay R. Mawalkar and Lynnette Blaney of the Battelle Institute.

This paper presents a software application that allows for the prioritization of customer requirements by classification into the Kano categories and also allows for subsequent use of the generated data in exercises like QFD.

Medical Device 1998

Using FMEA and QFD to Improve the Design of a Medical Device

Phil Price of Novartis Pharma AG and Ian Ferguson of Ferguson Associates, United Kingdom.

The paper shows the steps taken to question Functionality, Cost, and Reliability of a medical device and incorporation of a QFD led project which ensured an improved medical device with the required horizons of Cost, Performance, and Reliability.

An Application of Quality Function in the Medical Device Industry

Dr. Shihab Asfour, Dr. Eleftherios Iakovou, Gilbert Cortez of the Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Miami.

We first present the critical quality characteristics specific to the medical device industry, and then a novel application of QFD and robust design in a real- world case study for the design and development of a medical device. The employment of these techniques further leads to shorter time-to-market along with significant cost savings in R&D, manufacturing and service costs.

QA 1998

Using QFD to Establish a Quality Assurance Network

Antonio Carlos Ferreira Gomes, Ilka Vilardo, Marcus Vinicius Torres, Murilo Pirozzi, Paulo Roberto Villas, and Renato Machado Vilela of Poligran Polimeros Plasticos Ltda , and Fundacao Christiano Ottoni, Brazil.

This paper describes the infrequently seen but essential aspect of QFD called the Quality Assurance Network. A real case of applying QFD to Quality Assurance in the polymer package industry is presented not for redesign of the product or changing the specifications, but to assure the actual specifications improving the process capability (Cpk). This network allowed us to optimize the activities related to the Quality Assurance Function based on the voice of the customer and theirs priorities.

Service 1998

Information Service for the Manufacturing Industry

Elize Potgieter, Francois Smit, Heleen Snyman, and Johan Strydom of Aerotek, Division of CSIR South Africa, and Ben van Vliet of TechnoSolve.

QFD has been used to upgrade a service, called Infopak, which provides information to the manufacturing industry. Infopak is intended to help firms become more competitive, and to keep them updated on technological trends, topical issues and events in their respective manufacturing domains. The QFD exercise included a voice-of-the-customer analysis, which circumscribed the definition of information vehicles, packaging and delivery features, functions, and reliability factors.

Strategy 1998

Strategic Planning Process for Welfare Reform using QFD

Jack B. Re Velle, Ph.D. of Aerojet and G. Kevin McDonald of Raytheon Missile Systems Company.

In 1997, the United Way of Tucson partnered with Hughes Missile Systems to initiate a community- wide, strategic planning process for welfare reform. The process was designed to develop a "high-level," collaborative response to Federal and state legislative changes. A diverse group representing all sectors of the community met for 3 1/2 days to develop a comprehensive, consensual, prioritized plan. The study introduces a national model for similar community actions.

Strategy, QFD and the Balanced Scorecard

Robert A. Hunt of Graduate School of Management, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.

This research is based on a major four year study of 127 applications of QFD principles to innovation of physical products, services, software, processes and strategy in forty-nine companies in the South-west Pacific Rim. The paper examines the development of balanced scorecard performance indicators by these organizations, and looks at the association between their use and corporate success.

Transportation 1998

QFD Technique for Composite Railway Sleeper

M. R. Joshi of Research and Development Establishment (Engineers), Pune, India.

For the development of Railway Sleeper, The Product Development Team coming from three different organizations depended upon the experiences of the team members. Qualitative Requirements stated by the customer were translated into a FRP sleeper product and process characteristics using QFD approach.

TRIZ and QFD 1998

A New Model of the Conceptual Design Process using QFD/FA/TRIZ

Dr. Noel León- Rovira, Humberto Aguayo of Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Mexico.

A comprehensive model of the Conceptual Design Process is presented, which integrates QFD, Functional Analysis and TRIZ . Actual examples are shown on how the "roof" of the "House of Quality" may be used as an interface to the Technical Contradictions Table in TRIZ, as contradictory parameters are identified and the design conflicts may be solved based on the Technical Contradictions.

Innovation and Customer Focus: A Medical Marketing Success Study Demonstrating TRIZ and QFD

E Domb of The PQR Group, and David Corbin of Delcor Interactive International, Inc.

This case study illustrates the iterative combination of QFD, TRIZ, and an entrepreneurial intuition that hs gone into a successful new business venture.

[Poster Paper]

Application of TRIZ to Solve a Reliability Problem of a Hard Drive

Zinovy Royzen of TRIZ Consulting, Inc.

This paper describes TRIZ approaches to identify the best opportunities for development of products. A case study describes application of TRIZ to a difficult problem.

Value Engineering (VE) 1998

Adding Value to CIDM

M. Larry Shillito.

The enhancement of Customer Integrated Decision Making (CIDM) matrices using Value Engineering (VE) is a prime example of an enhanced and/or hybrid merger model which expands team creativity and discovery of new relationships and interactions. This paper examines the use of value indices, value graphs, value targeting, Customer Oriented Product Concepting (COPC), a variant of VE, to enhance the application of CIDM. The result is an improved balance between customer and company needs and the price cost ratio.

Voice of Customer 1998

The Fuzzy Front End of the New Product Development Process

Dr. Thomas Hsiang of Universal Foods Corporation.

This paper explores the best new product strategies, particularly focusing on the "fuzzy front end" of the new product development process.

Using Neural Networks to Analyze the Voice of the Customer

Robert L. Brass of Development II.

There are three steps involved in the process of creating successful Utility products and services. The first is to identify the problems that exist. The second is to characterize the value of those problems as perceived by your target market while the third is to create a product or service that effectively solves the high priority problems. The second step is the main subject of this paper.

General 1998

Managerial Implications for Customer Focused Product Development

Anders Gustafsson, Torbjörn Forsberg, Lars Nilsson and Mattias Elg of Linköping University, Division of Quality Technology and Management, Sweden.

Several Swedish companies have had great experience in the use of QFD, including Volvo, SAAB and SKF. This paper draws conclusions about some managerial implications on the use of QFD and draws comparison with results from other studies. The foundation for the paper is two case studies, TA Control and Mölnlycke, two companies with positive effects of using QFD.

Selecting the Best Direction to Create the Ideal Product Design

J Te rninko, Re sponsible Man agement, Inc., USA. .

This paper presents the integration of failure modes and function analysis to identify breakthrough development concepts. The driving force is the ideal final result as defined by the function associated with the most important performance measure in the House of Quality.

The Virtual Corporation and QFD: The Key to Effective Breaking of Boundaries

Dilworth Lyman of ViewPoint & Understanding Enhancement.

The virtual company is the dynamic alliance with other companies that already possess the resources required to synthesize new productive capabilities very quickly. QFD structures, methods, tools, and systems can provide the basis for meeting the critical need for understanding within and throughout all of the various points of view. We will also discuss the part QFD plays in moving beyond asset management to resource leverage.

Will Your QFD Add Value to Your Operation? How to Find Out

Allan J. Sayle of Allan Sayle Associates.

This paper describes how that framework can be assessed to determine whether or not QFD will deliver the results desired and value-adding operations will be obtained.

Value Management: Integrating QFD in the Product Value Deployment Process

Horst R. Schoeler of Schoeler & Partner.

This paper presents the framework of Value Management and the systematic combination and involvement of different methods like Value Engineering, QFD, Target Costing.

Moderated Knowledge Mapping - Forming Breakthrough and Knowledge Transfer!

Janice Marconi of Marconi Works, International.

Moderated Knowledge Mapping is a powerful tool that helps teams create new ideas and form knowledge into accessible organization learning. Initially pioneered by Larry Smith, it has been further developed and codified, becoming a unique synthesis of: Mind Mapping, Functional Analysis, and German Moderation / Metaplanning techniques.

[Poster Paper 1998]

An Intelligent Systems Approach to Quality Function Deployment (QFD)

Vivianne Bouchereau and Dr. H. Rowlands of University of Wales College, Newport, South Wales, United Kingdom.

This paper discusses how techniques such as Taguchi Method, Fuzzy Logic, and Artificial Neural Networks could be incorporated within QFD.

Quality Planning in the Existence of Multiple Customers: A Scoreboard Design Case

Gülser Köksal of Middle East Technical University and Özlem Fýndýkoglu of Aydýn Software and Electronics Inc.

In this study, an approach is presented to identify and prioritize multiple customers’ requirements for the design of a scoreboard used in basketball games, with four main customer groups in mind: Audience, referees, bid evaluation committee, and the QFD team.

Don’t Bank Just on Methodologies

Detlef Blankenburg, Marit Ranes, and Tore Holmboe Wiik of SINTEF Material Technology & Nordak Innovatikk, Department for Design and Product Development, Norway.

The project was planned to give the case company a new product generation, with the use of Voice of Customer, QFD, Pugh analyses, DFM and concurrent engineering. After two years of extensive work the project was stopped due to the dramatic change in both product design and production system. The paper describes the process and to analyzes some of the weaknesses in the methods taken.

Merging Two QFD Models Into One: An Approach Of Application

Luiz C. R. Carpinetti, Ph.D. and Manoel O. C. Peixoto of School of Engineering of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, Brazil.

This paper presents an approach to the application of QFD hat brings together the models developed by Don Clausing (Enhanced QFD) and Akao. It utilizes some of the tables and matrices proposed by Akao (1990) along with the basic four phases product and process deployment proposed by Clausing (1993).

Assigning Importance to Hows: Analysis of Two Competing Methodologies

R. Alan Kemerling of Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. (divison of Johnson & Johnson).

This paper and underlying research looks at two different methods (a simple arithmetic calculation and one that uses a weighted Whats importance value) for calculating the importance of Hows in the project. Using Monte Carlo simulation, hundreds of different QFD matrices were developed and the two distribution methods compared for their affect on the resulting priority of key Hows.

Using QFD to Develop a Planning Budget Linked to Organizational Objectives

Vito Wasniewski of INFOnetics, Inc.

Annual budgets or operating strategies are one of the least favored and time-consuming activities performed by directors or department managers. Using QFD can speed this process, but more importantly, drive more co-ordination, communication, and agreement of projects among a management team. This case study presents the process that developed the priorities for over 180 projects, drove rapid agreement among directors, and resulted in a business model.

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1997: The 9th Symposium on QFD (ISBN1-889477-09-5)
Order Form (Word file)

Blitz QFD 1997

Using the QFD Blitz for Making Better Proposals

Dr. Thomas Fehlmann and Dr. Ernest Wallmüller of Unisys (Schweiz) AG.

This paper describes the adaptation of QFD Blitz to proposal drafting and writing, and the demonstrated results of better competitive position, higher success rate, reduced cycle time for preparation and more understandable proposals.

QFD as a Support System to the Identification of Key Ideas for Technological Changes/Innovation

Antonio Di Zanni of Piaggio Veicoli Europei S.p.A.

This paper describes Piaggio's use of QFD to identifying areas of technological innovation and product concept innovation based on the BLITZ QFD technique.

Construction 1997

Using Post-Occupancy Evaluation and QFD Methodologies to Improve Quality in Building Construction b

Elizabeth K. A. Londe, Carlos Alberto Nunes Cosenza and Monica Santos Salgado of Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.

Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) analyzes the relationship between the built environment and the user behavior, primarily used for evaluating the performance of buildings, while QFD provides a systematic approach for the analysis of customer demands. This paper presents how to integrate POE and QFD in a consistent way so when used together they are effective way to listen to the voice of client in building construction.

Consumer Products 1997

Developing an Integrated Model of Designing the Ideal TV for the Consumer through QFD: A Consumer Electronics Case Study

Taylan Özsipahi and Haluk Ünsal of Beko Elektronik.

Beko Elektronik is the leading consumer electronics manufacturer in Turkey. This paper presents a case study on the application of QFD methodology to the development of a new series of televisions main chassis in order to obtain the optimum picture quality with competitive price characteristics.

Defense 1997

Modeling Knowledge Integration, Extending House of Quality to Meta-Fusion

Kevin Marler of Raytheon E-Systems.

This paper demonstrates how the House of Quality (HOQ) models within QFD can be extended through Meta-Fusion to evaluate teaming arrangements. Meta-Fusion HOQ was used to propose a teaming arrangement to produce a virtual-reality training system.

Systematic Application of Quality Management Principles in a Military Organization

Master Sergeant Ronald G. Ferrick and Staff Sergeant John D. Marshall of the U.S. Air Force, 16th Logistics Group.

Introducing quality management principles to military organizations produced some real challenges for this quality integration office, with the foremost being the acceptance of quality principles such as customer, vision, process, teams, empowerment, and metrics into a military environment. This paper describes the results of this effort and a strategic planning approach to tie all the principles together in a systematic application.

Function Analysis (FA) 1997

Function is the Foundation

Larry Shillito of Eastman Kodak.

Function analysis (FA), born in value engineering, has proven to be a valuable tool in the world of QFD. This paper illustrates the use of FA for VOC acquisition and product design and technology selection.

General Industry 1997

Task Deployment: Managing the Human Side of QFD

Glenn Mazur of Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.

This paper discusses the history of Task Deployment, its structure based on the 5W2H3C formula plus flow charting, through the examples of applications in QFD from determining project teams, defining market segments based on product usage, guiding customer visits, analyzing customer's business problems, creating job descriptions and plant requirements for service operations, and redefining the New Product Development Process itself.

20 Ways to Make Sure QFD Will Fail in Your Organization

Mike Wilson of OSW Cornerstone Associates.

This paper draws on extensive experience in the application of QFD to manufacturing and service organizations to report on a composite of customer interactions. Included will be a discussion of success stories, applications of QFD to new industries, unique problems and solutions, and new or supporting techniques that will lead to the successful application of QFD.

QFD: The Swedish Experience

Fredrik Ekdahl and Anders Gustafsson of Linköping University, Sweden.

This paper presents the results from a survey covering over 30 Swedish companies on their use of QFD, the difficulties they have encountered and the benefits they have realized.

Confirming Expert Judgment through Correlation

William Slabey of IVON Corporation.

This is a paper about a key supporting technique that elevates the relationship matrix from one based solely on expert judgment to more thorough methods. Use of correlation techniques to identify relationships allows expected relationships to be confirmed as well as identifying other unexpected measures that may drive customer perception.

A Non-Traditional Use of QFD: QFD Integrated with Management Systems to Determine Organizational Structure and Performance Evaluation

Richard A. Jacobs of Columbia Gas of Ohio.

This paper describes the non-traditional use of QFD in performance evaluation.

Expand, Collapse, and Subset - The Keys to Small Matrices

Dilworth Lyman of ViewPoint & Understanding Enhancement.

This describes how to focus efforts where they are most needed with an increasing level of detail in the House of Quality matrix. The methods to accomplish this are Expand, Collapse and Subset.

Systems Thinking Simulations as an Aid for Design QFD

Joe Miller of Quality Process Consulting.

This paper presents specific approaches and examples for defining models from QFD identified functions and quality characteristics, and demonstrates software aided execution of those models.

Accelerating QFD

Gershon Blumstein of Electronic Data Systems.

The effect of Trade Off Studies on vehicle development has been successfully applied to developing automotive subsystems. The results have been dramatic in supporting the Concurrent Engineering process. The objective of this paper is to explain how to use the information generated from the Trade Off Study in order to choose the best concept alternative that meets the requirements (needed functions) of several customers. This is used to accelerate the QFD process.

Improving Quality Function Deployment Through Customer Feedback: A Case-Based Reasoning Approach

D.A. Adams, Prof. C. Irgens and Dr. E. MacArthur of University of Paisley.

It is proposed that it may be possible to learn by correlating historic QFDs with customer feedback data. This paper develops this concept and discusses a prototype system which adopts an artificial intelligence technique known as Case-Based Reasoning to identify similarities between new and historic QFDs.

Healthcare 1997

Prioritizing Customer Requirements in a Rapidly Changing Marketplace

Bill Naccarato of Dade International, Inc.

This presents an overview of how the change in the health care market affect design of analyzers. Using actual data, the presentation will demonstrate the techniques used to process information and prioritize customer requirements.

A QFD-Based Evaluation of Prevention Services

Robert F. H ales, ProAction Development, Inc., Pamela Clark and Don Lakes of TriHealth.

This paper describes the process used to develop an overall corporate strategy, structure and service based solely on the benefits TriHealth's customers desire from a Prevention Services provider.

Hoshin Planning 1997

Hoshin Planning and QFD

Ian Ferguson of Ian Ferguson Associates, UK.

This paper discusses the organizational and cultural needs required of a company before considering implementing Policy Deployment using a Hoshin Kanri methodology.

Manufacturing 1997

A Competitive Advantage

Pamela Dunham formerly with AIDA-Dayton Technologies Corporation.

This paper describes how a manufacturer of metal forming presses and auxiliary equipment utilized QFD, Strategic Planning and Policy Deployment to address the basic business questions of: What is important to our customers?, What activities should be our focus in the next 1-5 years?, How do we focus associates on the company strategic objectives? and How do we gain and sustain a competitive advantage in the marketplace?

Reliability 1997

Reliability Function Deployment - RFD: A Systems Approach

Jayant Trewn and Dr. Kai Yang of Wayne State University.

The purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework to be used to deploy reliability characteristics into the functional design of a system (component, part, or a product as a combination of components or parts). Integration of reliability requirements into the design of a system, product or process is achieved through an integration of QFD techniques with Fault Tree Analysis.

Software 1997

Deploying Software QFD Within Large Organizations

Thomas Gorham and Mark P. McDonald of Andersen Consulting.

This paper is a summary of approximately 30 case studies where QFD has been used for software development. The paper discusses success stories and areas for improvement spanning utilities, financial services, manufacturing, telecommunications and other industries, as well as around the world including the U. S., Canada, Australia, and Germany.

Strategy 1997

Strategic QFD for Product Platform and New Technology Planning

Karla Kuzawinski and Dave Zawadzki of Xerox Engineering Systems.

This paper presents how QFD can be used to align both near and long term advanced technology research efforts and corporate strategic direction.

Applying QFD Principles to Strategic Transformation

Robert Hunt of Macquarie University, Australia.

Based on a major four year study of 127 applications of QFD principles to innovation of physical products, services, software, process and strategy in forty-nine companies in the South-west Pacific Rim, this paper outlines some of the major findings of the study, such as the importance or otherwise strategic connection and organizational culture for success in innovation and transformation.

A Strategy Formulation Methodology Based on QFD for Traditional Manufacturing Companies

Antony Lowe and Prof. Keith Ridgway of the University of Sheffield, UK.

In order to encourage a market focus, innovation and the adoption of modern manufacturing techniques within local companies, a strategy formulation/review methodology using adapted QFD has been developed at the Manufacturing Research Group at Sheffield University. This paper outlines the basis on which this methodology was built including current thinking in strategy research, innovation techniques and QFD, as well as a case study of a coal mining equipment manufacturer.

Telecommunication 1997

Advanced QFD Techniques for Creating a Competitive Edge in a Deregulated Telephone Market

Martin Lossie of Coopers & Lybrand Management Consultants.

This paper presents a success story of the application of QFD in the area of telecommunications service provider. Deregulation enables a cable TV operator in The Netherlands to introduce telephone service to residential and business customers. The ability to compete with the incumbent telephone company required an insight to customer satisfaction drivers. QFD was successfully used to identify a comprehensive portfolio of company ingredients that form the basis for creating customer satisfaction.

QFD As a GIDE to Product Realization

David Bowen of Lucent Technologies Network Systems and Patrick G. Brown of Lucent Technologies Bell Laboratories.

This paper illustrates the successful application of QFD to an internal process alignment between historically warring functions. Network Systems' use of a QFD approach to frame and translate these stakeholders' voices into Guidelines for Installation, Design & Engineering (GIDE) in a cross-organizational setting has enabled Network Systems to foster product designs that are better-aligned with the entire value creation chain, helping ensure lower end-to-end costs and faster product introduction & change cycles.

Training and Education 1997

Training Function Deployment: Applying QFD to Staff Development

John Stampen of Home Savings and Leveraged Learning.

Training Function Deployment (TFD) is a specialized application of QFD that helps assure organizations that their employees are able to perform important job functions. This paper describes the TFD process which begins by building a position profile that prioritizes development goals and identifies related knowledge and skills.

TRIZ 1997

The TRIZ, QFD and Taguchi Connection

J T e rnin ko, Responsible Man agement, Inc., USA.  

This paper will provide the rationale for the use of the tool and explain how the specific TRIZ tools are to be used to vastly improve the new product development process.

TRIZ: Acceleration of Conceptual Design in Product Development

Zinovy Royzen of TRIZ Consulting, Inc.

This paper describes some of TRIZ approaches to accelerate conceptual design in product development.

Application of TRIZ for Design of New Materials

Semyon D. Savransky of West Coast Quartz Corporation.

This paper illustrates the use of TRIZ principles, such as SuField Analysis, for the design of new materials for electronic applications and the novel class of superconductors - chalcogenide glasses and even melts.

Anticipatory Failure Determination (AFD): The Application of TRIZ to Risk Analysis

Stan Kaplan of Bayesian Systems, Inc.

This paper presents an exposition of Anticipatory Failure Determination (AFD) in comparison to and within the context formed by the conventional TRIZ approaches.

Voice of Customer 1997

Using VR-Based Conjoint to Capture the Voice of the Customer

Lisa Wood, Mohan Bala, Dean Hering of Research Triangle Institute and Todd Romig of Volvo GM Heavy Truck.

This paper describes how Research Triangle Institute used an innovative new tool - TradeOff VRTM which combines conjoint analysis and virtual reality to gather customer preferences for feature of a new truck early in the product design process without using physical prototypes, to incorporate the voice of the customer into the product planning process at Volvo GM Heavy Truck.

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1996: The 8th Symposium on QFD and 2nd International Symposium on QFD (ISBN1-889477 -08-7)   Order Form (Word file)

Conjoint Analysis 1996

Conjoint Analysis - A Useful Tool in the Design Process

Professor Bo Bergman, Fredrik Ekdahl, and Anders Gustafsson of Linköping University (Sweden).

This paper presents conjoint analysis as a tool to help elicit customer's priorities, including a possible work flow for conjoint analysis and an example of the information collected.

Reposable Medical Device Development - Creatively Meeting Customers' Needs (Applied Conjoint Analysis & QFD)

George J. Marcel, Heidi Youngkin, and Bob Anthony of Guidant - Origin Medsystems, Inc. (USA).

This case study provides the initial results on integrating marketing and quality tools in a medical device application - a reposable (partially reusable, partially disposable) instrument used in Minimum Invasive Surgery. It addresses how the use of combined disciplines can provide an improve product that meets or exceed the customer requirement in quality, cost, and timing.

Construction 1996

QFD in Building Design

Petri Laurikka, Antti Lakka, and Mikko Vaino of VTT Building Technology (Finland).

This paper reports three construction projects that applied QFD as a team decision-making tool to listen to the voice of the customer to achieve common understanding, consensus, and commitment in design objectives and design solutions. QFD provided a systematic method for the analysis of the customer demands. Each case project resulted in several design changes that were appreciated.

QFD on a Construction Project Process for a Multi-compartment Silo

Luiz Roberto Prates of M. Roscoe S.A. Engineering (Brazil).

This paper reports a construction project of a multi-compartment silo for a cement industry that used the QFD processes. The main objective was to assure quality as well as reduction in project time and cost.

QFD in Building Construction

Syed M. Ahmed and Roozbeh Kangari of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong) and Roozbeh Kangari of the Georgia Institute of Technology (USA).

This paper proposes a QFD model for construction industry which consists of: 1) Client Requirements Diagram that identifies the top, intermediate, and basic client satisfaction events; 2) Responsibility Matrix which identifies clients, architects/engineers, and contractors responsibilities; and 3) Quality Charts based on the necessary and sufficient conditions required for quality work in planning, design, and construction.

Design of Experiments 1996

QFD Implementation in DOE

Dr. Eli A. Glushkovsky of TelRad (Israel ).

At the stage of DOE planning, QFD may successfully provide: Cause-and-Effect Diagram analysis, selection of appropriate factors and number of actor levels, choice of DOE type and resolution. At the state of DOE execution, advanced QFD makes it possible: 1) to create visual models based on expert rules such as "if factor A is high, then responsive variable is low"; 2) to apply thee models for "what-if" simulation and optimization.

Electronics 1996

Product Development System Using QFD and Other Methods at Kinpo Electronics

Jyh- Ren Yang and Chen Hsiu Li of the China Productivity Center (Taiwan).

Kinpo Electronics, one of the world's leading manufacturer of calculators and facsimile machines, used QFD to construct a product development system of their own that would connect related activities through their 28 departments as well as shorten the product development cycle.

Improvement of Memory Product Development System Through Quality Function Deployment

Ju-myoung Lee, Semiconductor Business, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.

Samsung began QFD in 1994. This paper presents a Comprehensive QFD project within the Samsung Semiconductor Business.

Food 1996

Exploring a New Market for Sausage Using QFD

Francisco M. Ormenese, et al of Sadia Concórdia (Brazil).

This study was to develop a new fresh pork sausage for the southern areas of Brazil. Through qualitative consumer research found the newly developed prototype obtained superior performance in comparison with the product of the main competitor. The consumer voice was translated to the QC process chart using QFD methodology.

Food Product Upgrade Using QFD

Ioanis Athanase Sarantópoulos et al of of Sadia Concórdia (Brazil).

Sandia, the largest meat processor in Brazil, used QFD to regain market share, reduce costs and improve intrinsic quality of the product as perceived by the consumer. The conceptual model was developed viewing the production flow process from downstream to upstream, starting with the quality characteristics of raw materials, followed by quality characteristics of auxiliary raw materials, of intermediate products, and finally , of the finished product.

Bagel Sales Double at Host Marriott with QFD

Glenn Mazur of Japan Business Consultants, Ltd. (USA).

Host Marriott, which operates 70% of the U.S. airport food and beverage market, wanted to assure that its product offering were keeping up with customer demands: 1) healthier and lighter food; 2) more women travelers; and 3) fewer on-board meals being served. Their traditional approach to new product and service development was penny profit driven and not customer focused. QFD was employed to make quality and customer satisfaction more important. Within one month of completion, sales doubled.

General Industry 1996

The Keys to Successful Selling of QFD: Helping Management Choose to "Do QFD"

Diworth Lyman of Viewpoint & Understanding Enhancement (USA).

Successful use of QFD on a company-wide basis requires a significant commitment of resources. This paper addresses the issue of getting management buy-in to QFD by selling QFD as a solution, not just a new technology.

Strategies to Implement QFD in the Basque Country of Spain

Mikel Sorli and Alberto Gomez Telletxea of LABEIN (Spain).

The implementation of QFD in Spain's Basque Country has been slow and without the expected successes. A new strategy based on the synergy between Quality Assurance System ISO 9000, is doing the QFD process backwards, starting with manufacturing and ending with the House of Quality or A-1 Matrix. At first look, this flow is completely opposite to the current view of QFD, but the reason is found in the early beginnings of QFD.

Customer and Product Profiling in the "Fuzzy Front End"

M. Larry Shillito of Kodak (USA).

This paper proposes the Customer Profile and Product Profile, two front-end, macro-level converging tools to focus product and projects, that can can be applied before application of QFD, to reduce mid-stream design engineering process changes.

How to Connect Technology Seeds to Customer Needs

Dr. Kozo Koura of Asahi University (Japan).

This research paper discusses "Seeds-derived QFD," a focus of a research committee at the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers since 1988.

Conflict Management in Design

Stephan Jacobs and Michael Gebhardt of Ericsson Eurolab Deutchland (Germany).

This paper presents a conflict management theory and a toolkit for conflict management support that are based on the QFD principles.

Product Differentiation Through QFD

Robert H ales of ProAction Development, Inc. (USA).

This paper discusses the benefits and how to use QFD in product development to create differentiation from competitors.

Why QFD Fails and What to Do About It

Gershon Blumstein, EDS.

This paper explains the common mistakes that organizations make in implementing QFD and provides guidance to avoid those mistakes.

Integration of Total Quality Methodologies with Simultaneous Engineering Concepts in a Comakership Frame

Mikel Sorli and Alberto Gomez of LABEIN (Spain).

This paper is on the importance of rapid reaction to market requirements and meeting or exceeding customer expectation and reducing lead time and cost. Based an experience developed from 1993 to 1995 within the frame of a Brite European Project.

Healthcare 1996

A Customer Integrated Decision Making/QFD Project a Multi-function Team of Health Care Providers Planning a Treatment System for Adults with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)

Douglas W. Penz, PhD, Judith Daniels, MD, Thomas E. D'Erminio, LISW, BC, and Bill Barnard, BS, CS, CPIM (USA).

A team including a physician, clinical psychologist, and clinical social worker is using CIDM/QFD to identify customers and their needs for treatment of adult ADD. The treatment facility is expected to open in the summer of 1996.

Information Systems 1996

IT Support for QFD: An Innovative Software Concept Providing Project Management and Team Tools

T. Pfeifer, Albert Neumann, Robert Grob of Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering, University of Technology in Aachen, Germany.

This paper describes a new and innovative IT approach to support QFD efforts. Deriving from observation of failed QFD projects in Europe, the paper proposes factors for a successful QFD implementation and shows the general software concept for for project management and team tools.

The Role of QFD in Quality Information Systems

Syohei Ishizu of Aoyama Gakuin University (Japan).

Information systems and databases are important to product planning, design, manufacturing, etc. QFD can be used to help construct those systems.

Manufacturing 1996

QFD in a Brazilian Steel Company

Carlos Augusto de Oliveira of Belgo-Mineira Steel Company (Brazil).

One of the largest Brazilian manufacturers of wire rods and drawn wires used QFD to reduce costs and increase market share in rods and bars for car suspension springs. Matrices of quality, cost, reliability deployment, FMEA, Taguchi Methods and regression analysis were combined. This effort resulted in 23% cost reduction, 90% customer complaints, and a steady increase in market share.

QFD at Kawasaki Heavy Industries

Susumu Yamamoto, Kawasaki Heavy Industry (Japan).

Kawasaki, a major manufacturer of heavy machinery, ships, vessels, cars, motorbikes, and plant equipment in Japan, presents their their unique approach to QFD with special focus on product liability and safety through improvement of the upstream design quality.

Beyond the First Chart: QFD for Process Improvement

Mike Graetz of 3M Tape Manufacturing Division.

This presentation demonstrates some techniques especially useful for process industries and improving the existing product and process. Specifically, the QA/QC planning chart, process stage chart, and process control strategy charts are proposed, and their purpose and usage are explained.

How to Apply the Power of Computing to the QFD Process

Karla Kuzawinski, Xerox Corp. (USA).

This paper presents recommendations on when to consider and how to use computers to support various part of the QFD process. Not all aspects of the process should be automated since group discussion and interaction is a very valuable part of developing a common level of understanding of customer requirements.

Medical Device 1996

Reposable Medical Device Development - Creatively Meeting Customers' Needs (Applied Conjoint Analysis & QFD)

George J. Marcel, Heidi Youngkin, and Bob Anthony of Guidant - Origin Medsystems, Inc. (USA).

This case study provides the initial results on integrating marketing and quality tools in a medical device application - a reposable (partially reusable, partially disposable) instrument used in Minimum Invasive Surgery. It addresses how use of combined disciplines can provide an improve product that meets or exceed the customer requirement in quality, cost, and timing.

Reliability 1996

QFD and Product and Process Reliability

Ian Ferguson of Ian Ferguson Associates (United Kingdom).

This paper shows how post-House of Quality data can be used for reliability, test planning, and risk analysis with such tools as Fault Tree Analysis; how it can be used with experimental design, product and process design to ensure robustness to uncontrollable events.

Service 1996

QFD Implementation in Hospital Housekeeping Services

Noriharu Kaneko of Service Quality Management Ltd. (Japan).

Hospitals must go to great lengths to see that disease does not spread from one patient to the next. This paper shows how the author's company is pursuing ISO9000 compliance to assure cleaning crews to the job right the first time.

Experiences from QFD Techniques in Service Development

Niklas Hallberg and Toomas Timpka, Linkoping University, Sweden.

This research evaluated the use of QFD in service development on three project experiences: Development of customized socio-medical services, development of computer support for teamwork at primary health care centers, and determination of support methods for participatory design projects. The result showed the House of Quality and QFD were useful in service development.

Software 1996

Developing Multimedia Integrated Circuit Solutions Using Customer Integrated Decision Making (CIDM)

Carrie Richardson of Motorola (USA) and Bill Barnard of Barnard-Norman Associates (USA).

This is a case study involving an internationally located team using CIDM to interview customers and focus on value and choice in order to arrive at technical specifications for multimedia solutions, leading to the development of an integrated circuit, its software and development tools.

Measuring the Success of a QFD Project by a Pilot Project with the German Software House SAP

Dr. Georg Herzwurm of The University of Cologne (Germany).

A QFD pilot project with the largest software house in Germany, the SAP AG, included the development of a method for measuring the success of QFD. This method is based on a structured questioning of all project members concerning their personal factors of success and attitudes before and after the QFD.

Making the Millennium Decision: Applying QFD to the year 2000 Century Change Issue

William J. Jagrowski, Andersen Consulting; Robert L. Pike, Consumers Power Company (USA).

The case study offers an example of how QFD and the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) techniques can be used to facilitate a decision facing a company grappling with legacy system obsolescence, including the Year 2000 problem.

QFD Software 1996

How to Apply the Power of Computing to the QFD Process

Karla Kuzawinski, Xerox Corp. (USA).

This paper presents recommendations on when to consider and how to use computers to support various part of the QFD process.

A Computerized Database to Assist QFD

Larry A. Stauffer and Linda J. Morris, University of Idaho; Dileep V. Khadilkar of Project Advisors International. Ltd.

Based on QFD, a computerized database was developed to assist design teams with the product definition process. It provides a framework for eliciting/managing customer information, the engineering information, and the resulting product specifications. A case study of an industrial application is presented along with experiments to validate its usefulness.

Strategy 1996

Building and Sustaining an Industry Leader with QFD: Deve Hydraulic Lifts Australia Pty. Ltd.

Robert Hunt of Macquarie University Graduate School of Management and Fernando Xavier, Managing Director, Deve Hydraulic Lifts Pty. Ltd. (Australia).

Deve Hydraulic Lifts Australia (DHA) adopted a QFD-like approach to setting corporate strategy and aligning all the major improvements of the organization toward achievement of the vision. Gemba visits by the DHA's top management team and multiple matrices and function trees were used.

Applying the Power of QFD to Strategic Planning

Karl Hummel of The Change Factory (USA).

This paper discusses the application of QFD to the creation of a strategic plan for the University of Vermont so that it can be initiated across all departments and functions.

Taguchi Method 1996

A Robust Quality Design Model that Integrated QFD and Taguchi Methods

Yann-Fang Chu of National Defense Management College (Taiwan).

This paper proposes a two-phase robust quality design model and process that integrates enhanced QFD and parameter design. It uses QFD to be the transformation communication interface, AHP to evaluate the importance of the requirement and design parameters, and Taguchi Methods to get the optimal sets of robust quality design or to revise the value of requirement goal.

Telecommunication 1996

Motorola's Six Pack QFD Total Customer Satisfaction Team

Fred Stickel, Sherry Bosserman, John Forsberg, and Fred Stickel of Motorola, American's Parts Division, Land Mobile Products Sector (USA).

A case study for a Motorola Total Customer Satisfaction Team for the America's Parts Division, this project focused on improving unacceptable customer satisfaction ratings in the areas of product and pricing information for the company's aftermarket components. Voice of customer analysis yielded seven critical misinterpretations of customer needs.

TRIZ 1996

Enhancing the Value of the Correlation Matrix through Utilization of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, TRIZ

Dana W. Clarke, Sr. of Ridge Tool Co. (USA).

This paper shows how correlations in the roof of the House of Quality can be used to enhance innovation and how this can lead to significant innovative opportunities.

TRIZ/Ideation Methodology for Customer Driven Innovation

B. Zlotin, A. Zusman, S. Malkin, L. Kaplan, G. Zainiev, S. Vishnepolskaya, V. Oleynikov, V. Prosyanic of Ideation International Inc.

The paper introduces the understanding of TRIZ/Ideation Methodology to QFD theoreticians and practitioners and how this method can be applied to the QFD process.

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1995: The 7th Symposium on QFD (ISBN1-889477-07-9)
Order Form (Word file)

Aerospace 1995

Parametric Cost Deployment

E. B. Dean, NASA Langley Research Center.

This paper reviews parametric cost analysis and shows how it can be used within the cost deployment process.

Architecture, Building, Construction 1995

Quality Function and Cost Deployment in Ceramics Industry: A Case Study

P. Sophatsathit, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, T. Chuenchom, International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, and N. Nisapakultorn, Quality Training (Thailand) Ltd.

This study looks into current obstacles encountered by a selected ceramic tile manufacturer with the goals to 1) reduce design/development time for a new ceramic product, and to 2) optimize the product cost/ quality to concur with the requirements. The goals were accomplished with the use of a quality/cost chart derived from customer's requirements and target costs using Quality and Cost Deployment. The result show a 30% reduction in the design and development time, as well as the product cost by a significant factor.

QFD and ProVE: Applications in the Building Industry

James F. Meredith (AIA), Dennis O'Bierne (AIA), Giffels Associates, Inc.

This paper presents a window into QFD-like practices in the local industry, indicates a process for further integration of QFD principles and practices, and shows a direction for further development.

Automotive 1995

QFD Status in the U.S. Automotive Industry

Harold Ross and Kioumars Paryani, GM Systems Engineering Center, NAO Engineering Center, General Motors Corporation.

This paper attempts to provide a brief description of the current usage, integration, and understanding of the QFD process within the context of General Motor's product development process.

Fuelguard Lower Tie Plate Product and Process Re-Design Using QFD and Robust Design

D. Adams and G. Waymire, Siemens Power Corp., S. Macfarlane, Black Sheep Engineering Services, and P. Walsh, Ehrhardt Tool and Machine.

A multi-functional team from Siemens and vendors redesigned a fuel assembly component, using QFD and Robust Design. The team used quality deployment and Pugh Concept Selection to generate a new concept and Robust Design to optimize the product. Process deployment using QFD further enhanced the manufacturing capability.

Lessons Learned From A QFD On A Decklid System

G. Blumstein and H. Graves, EDS.

A QFD of a Decklid system was conducted over a five month period by a small cross- functional team with an aim to assist in defining the requirements of the system. The study, which incorporated VOC analysis and many different engineering disciplines, showed a direct relationship between downstream engineering decisions and upstream VOC statements.

Computer and Software 1995

Quality Function Deployment - Integrating Product Development into the Systems Development Process

Mark P. McDonald, Andersen Consulting.

This paper provides an overview of QFD, its role in the systems development process and an example for study. The case study offers an example of how this advanced quality technique applies to software development.

Integrating QFD with Object-Oriented Software Design Methodologies

Walter M. Lamia, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University.

This paper gives an overview of Object Oriented design concepts, and shows how familiar QFD techniques are an effective aid for the Object-oriented analyst. QFD is a much easier way to approach to the initial information collection and provides easy to understand structuring tools that do not require extensive training in Object-oriented concepts and methods.

Defining the Unknown Customer Wants and Needs- Applying the Reflector Method into QFD

Noriyuki Neil Takeuchi Integrated Quality Dynamics, Inc.

In software development, quality requirements frequently, and once a durable system has been decided upon, the specifications will ultimately transform. The Reflector is a new method for QFD that defines the demanded quality items perfectly with the voice of the customer analysis. It develops the necessary information such as demanded quality and function based on the customer voice, which is defined by the mirror that can cast future customers' wants and needs. This paper introduced how to use the Reflector in the QFD software field.

Quality Function Deployment (QFD): An Effective Technique For Requirements Acquisition

Tuyet-Lan Tran and Joseph S. Sherif, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Software Assurance, California Institute of Technology.

Often the customers are blamed for not properly articulating their requirements or understanding their own needs. However, the problem is deeper than that, and it involves the system analysts or engineers, and designers. This paper puts forward QFD as an effective tool for the acquisition of customer requirements.

Education 1995

QFD-Building Quality Into English Universities

M. Clayton, Aston University.

Aston University is testing the power of QFD as a tool to ensure that customer needs are reflected at each stage of the design, development and execution of degree programs. This paper reports on progress, including definition of "quality" in universities.

Using QFD for Curriculum Design

J. Hillman and F. Plonka.

QFD principles are being applied to design an engineering education curriculum. To determine a reasonable 'product life cycle,' i.e., a typical career for a manufacturing engineer in this case, four elements - career, competencies, roles, and knowledge - were examined as well as their relationships. The paper reports the application process of this on-going project.

QFD in the Development of Engineering Studies

Per Nilsson, Bengt Lofgren, and Gunnar Erixon, Centre of Industrial Engineering and Management, CITU, University College of Falun Borlange, Sweden.

This paper reports the use of QFD in developing an education a system that provides high quality engineers well adapted to a productive life and capable of life-long learning.

Electronics 1995

QFD for Prediction of Phased-in Customer Benefits

Carol Boehm, Motorola, Inc. and Ted Squires, Effective Product Foundations, Inc.

The Quartz Products Division of Motorola utilized QFD for developing a long-range improvement / implementation plan for the Division's computer integrated manufacturing system. The team developed a technique that projects the customer of each phase directly from the information gathered from the QFD. This was instrumental in getting customer buy-in to the system concept, by quantitatively showing the customer benefits on a phase-by-phase basis.

Energy & Utilities 1995

QFD and Deming Prize Activities at FPL

Bob Bodziony, Florida Power & Light.

This paper reports the FPL's commitment to quality that began in 1981, its quality improvement program, TQM initiatives, and Deming Prize activities and the role of QFD in the Deming effort, as well as the challenges and benefit, the resulting cultural changes, and post Deming QFD activities.

Food 1995

The Introduction of Quality Function Deployment At A Large Food Company

J. Rodriquez, The Q2000 Group, Inc.

As a part of the TQM process at this $5 billion food manufacturer, the management decided to try QFD. A unique piloting process was used which entailed volunteer teams and the simultaneous development of tailored QFD training. Some new market research approaches were used. Successful new products and packages were developed using these methods.

General Industry 1995

Quality Programs and Quality Profits: Using QFD to Evaluate the Profit Impact of Customer Satisfaction

B. Klein, Applied Marketing Science, Inc.

Program managers and product developers need to assess the profit impact of programs and actions aimed at customer satisfaction in order to determine the best way to spend scarce corporate resources and to avoid expensive marketing. EPICS (Evaluating the Profit Impact of Customer Satisfaction) is an interactive, PC-based model that uses QFD as the paradigm for linking programs to customer satisfaction, customer behavior and profitability.

Evaluating QFD Relationships Through The Use Of Regression Analysis

B. Yoder and D. Mason, EDS-Management Consulting Services.

This paper describes the details and advantages of the regression analysis, a methodology for incorporating regression analysis into a common QFD methodology, and examples of the output and lessons learned from a QFD study using this process.

Determination of Design Parameters Using QFD

Anwar-ul Islam and Ming C. Liu, Wichita State University

This research paper proposes a methodology that combines various customer inputs through Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and multi-attribute utility function to provide a sound theoretical basis for determining product design parameters. A linear programming model is developed to maximize customer satisfaction and to optimize design parameters that satisfy customer attributes.

The Balancing of QFD Matrices: The Key to Understanding Your Customer Needs

D. Lyman, International TechneGroup, Inc.

This paper shows how to look at three different viewpoints using three matrices, how to check these matrices mathematically for misunderstood or misrepresented information, how to use computerized tools to find the problems and the point of diminishing returns, and how to extend these techniques to other parts of the QFD process.

Comprehensive QFD

D. Powers and R. Harter, CSG Card Services Comprehensive QFD

Doing the House of Quality (A-1) or 4 Phase QFD may not be enough to get the results required from the QFD process. Comprehensive QFD allows the QFD project to include customer, cost, reliability, technology, and other requirements in the study without overpowering each other and losing important information. This paper describes the similarities and differences of 4 Phase and Comprehensive QFD.

Are They My QFD Rules or Are They New QFD Rules? -or- How to change a Technology

D. Lyman, International TechneGroup, Inc.

Changing a technology is the key to successful application of any technology, including QFD. This paper discusses how we can adapt QFD and adapt to QFD for successful outcome, how to know when you have improved or changed it, and how to know when you have created something new.

An Investigation into Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Usage in the U.S.

JohnCristiano, Jeffrey Liker, and Chelsea C. White, III, University of Michigan.

This research paper provides an overview of the U.S. portion of the survey results concerning the use of the House of Quality / 4-House approaches to QFD. It reports some basic differences in the application in the U.S. and in Japan and seemingly conflicting results between the reported benefits of using the HOQ / 4-House QFD in the two countries.

VOC with a Future Dimension

Larry Shillito, Kodak.

To remain competitive, it is necessary to periodically reevaluate customer needs along with changes over time. To do this, Delphi inquiry, Molecular Explosion Model, impact analysis, and monitoring are integrated into an effective model to explore the future customer voice.

Electronic QFD In A Geographically Distributed Development Network

M. Mehta, Ph.D., Environmental Research Electronic.

This paper discusses an application of QFD to the electronic planning, execution, monitoring and stat, using of multiple technical tasks in the Composites Automation Consortium. Current and future customer requirements for advanced aerospace composite structures were defined at the top level, and used to drive the machine conceptualization through preliminary design. In addition to adapting the QFD across a consortium, considerable effort was expended in implementing TQM tools over the CAC's concurrent engineering electronic collaboration infrastructure and to link various technical tasks and deliverables by QFD.

Quality Function Deployment and Quality Policy Deployment In The South West Pacific Rim

R. Hunt, Macquarie University Graduate School of Management.

This research paper presents the framework and preliminary insights of research into some 80 QFD projects that responded to questions "how successful has QD been in Australia?," "in what areas has it been successful and unsuccessful and why?," and "what are the lessons to be learned for the future?"

Incentive Pay For Customer Satisfaction

B Klein, Applied Marketing, Inc.

If internal metrics can be linked to customer needs and satisfaction these matrices can form the basis for a compensation program that achieves all the goals of a satisfaction-based system.

Healthcare 1995

QFD Robust Design and Professional Services: Hospital Emergency Room Case

S. Macfarlane and K. Eager, Black Sheep Engineering Services.

This paper describes what the authors believe is a new application of Robust Design Methods. The point is made through a case study involving optimization of the process of a hospital emergency in which average patient length of stay was reduced by 25% without major capital investment for an expanded facility.

Happy Feet, Part II: The Return of the Princeton Foot Clinic -or- The QFD Viral Strategy

J. Gibson, Baptist Health System.

A hospital-based foot treatment service was developed, using QFD principles to identify the spoken and unspoken needs of customers, including comprehensive patient self-care, and timely follow-up on patient outcomes to referring physicians. This paper reports the QFD process and the results, that not only enabled the clinic to overcome internal political hurdles, but also led to greater awareness of the customer among all parties involved with the clinic and strengthen the customer focus in the larger rehabilitation services and the entire outpatient scheduling system.

Reconciling Different Customer Needs

I. Ferguson, Ferguson Associates, UK.

This paper shows the identification of the internal/external supplier - customer - supplier - customer hierarchy as illustrated in the healthcare industry. An effective two stage mechanism is described that evaluates the design features at each level of deployment, by linking the relative level needs, enabling a rational choice of values to be made at each level that will result in high satisfaction at teach level of customer.

Hoshin Planning 1995

QFD and Hoshin Planning: A Look at the Synergies

J.F. Colletti.

This paper explores the synergy between QFD and Hoshin Planning, two new methodologies that were introduced to the North America a few years ago.

Human Resources 1995

QFD for Quality of Work Life

B. Harries and Matthew Baerveldt , TELUS.

This paper outlines the theory and its application in improving the quality of employees' work life. The application was done in three stages: a Quality of Work Life survey to find out what employees want, QFD to design a system for improving the quality of employees' work lives and identifying and designing priority areas for improvement, and SPC to maintain the gains made.

Kano Model 1995

Using an Objective Sales Point measure To Incorporate Elements of the Kano Model Into QFD

W.G. Robertshaw, Arbor, Inc.

This paper describes ASCENTsm Model methodology developed by this firm that redefines the sales points and uses the sales point information to clarify type of Kano element.

Manufacturing 1995

Taguchi's Philosophy Helps Manufacturing Deployment

John T e rnin ko, Re sponsible Man agement, Inc., USA.

This paper presents a brief introduction to a comprehensive QFD project where the VOCT and the design matrix were used to define the desired quality and priority. This information, plus failure modes, were used to define the environment for an in-depth discussion of robust design applied to an injection molding process.

QS-9000 1995

QFD's Role in QS-9000 Automotive Standards

Chad Kymal and Dennis W. Hughey, Omnex.

Presentation slides on the topic of using the QFD tool to satisfy the QS-9000 automotive standards.

Service 1995

Elicit Service Customer Needs - Using Software Engineering Tools

Glenn H. Mazur, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.

Not as much attention has been paid to more systematic ways to define requirements in the first place. This can be especially problematic for service organizations whose product is highly transitory and people-dependent. This paper looks at use of the Sate-Transition Diagram, Data Flow Diagram, Event Table, and Event Tree to better define service customer needs and to enhance understanding of customers interaction with service provides and their buying decision making.

Quality Function Deployment as a Tool for Creating Service Innovations

Alexander Held, Catholic University of Elchstaff.

A dissertation paper on the development of a comprehensive framework for creating new services by means of QFD, as well as the guidelines on how to structure and create an entire process of innovating services.

Effecting Customer Satisfaction through the Use of RHI©, Triple Triangle© and X Factoring©

Robin Yap, SolutionsGroup

This paper introduces new methods to understand customer happiness, customer support engineers job satisfaction, and how to model business delivery processes with inputs, outputs, and feedback.

Strategy 1995

Monopolize Your Business Strategy With QFD

Dr. A.R. Atkins and L.M. Crisafi.

Utilizing a multi-tiered approach, McDonnel Douglas Technologies, has developed a novel use of a classical TQM tool to link the VOC to all levels of the company. Starting with the strategic 'whats,' the next level of management teams develop the 'hows' which become the 'wants' for the second tier set of QFD Houses. Continuing this process through several additional tiers has resulted in a collection of Houses that are strength in integrated strategic planning.

Team Building 1995

Teaming Using Customer Integrated Decision Making CIDM/QFD In International Projects

M. Holtzlieter and S. Nelson, Senco Fastening Systems and B. Barnard, Barnard-Norman Associates.

This paper is about the importance and value of teams having direct involvement with the customer, a process that will support these efforts, the results of two projects that required cross-functional and cross- cultural teams, and how they used a "customer integrated" approach to support the objectives during the project.

Telecommunication 1995

Voice of the Customer: Linking Your System of Measures to Customer Needs

Lorraine Pennington and Gayle Sweeney, AT&T.

This paper shares AT&T FTS200 experiences in implementing the Voice of the Customer process and their application of QFD in defining customer needs and satisfaction for FTS2000 service quality. It also provides an insight on what they learned, pitfalls to avoid, and on techniques that were successful.

QFD and Training in a Reengineering Environment

John Cominsky, Pacific Bell, Inc. and R. Norman Barnard-Norman Associates.

This paper details the use of QFD as a planning tool to facilitate competency evaluation and overall training management in an evolving environment.

You Want What? You Want It When? - A Dual House of Quality Approach to Service Deployment

Patrick Brown, AT&T Bell Laboratories, QUEST Partnership.

Recently, telecommunications service improvement teams have found a dual-HOQ approach valuable in defining both the attributes of a given service and its delivery process characteristics; the result: better coherence between definition and delivery parameters and reduced interval for total service deployment. This paper describes how one business unit is applying the dual-HOQ approach to services.

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1994: The 6th Symposium on QFD (ISBN1-889477-06-0)
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Aerospace, Aviation, and Defense 1994

QFD Applications At NASA Lewis Research Center

Y. Liou, Cleveland State University, D. Swec and D. Sender, NASA Lewis Research Center.

The Process Action Teams at NASA Lewis Research Center has used QFD to obtain personnel's wants and needs on the research center issues such as management information system, recognition system, and new employee pilot orientation program. The center also used QFD to capture the voice of rocket and thruster users and manufacturers. This paper presents the QFD tailoring processes and the difficult issues experienced in implementing QFD in a R&D environment.

Quality Function Deployment In Concurrent Engineering And System Development Process

David L. Melton, ITT Aerospace/Communication Division.

This paper illustrates how QFD can be used to enhance the DOD system engineering and system development process and provide a visual capture of the decisions and target values made as the program transitions from system development through to product and process design.

Integrating Quality Function Deployment (QFD) in to the System Engineering and System Development Process

David L. Melton, ITT Aerospace/Communications Division.

This paper illustrates how QFD can be used to enhance the system engineering and system development process and provide a visual capture of the decisions and target values made as the program transitions from system development through to product and process design.

Aligning Process Improvement With The Voice Of The Customer

M. Zubeck, Space Systems/Loral; Frank Nibley, Leemak, Inc.

This paper provides an overview of how QFD tools were used to align the company's continuous improvement initiatives to the voice of the internal customers at Space Systems/Loral. This study highlights a 3-step roadmap for collecting the VOC and setting the direction for deploying a successful process improvement program.

QFD Addresses The Mobility Of NATO Tactical Aircraft

S.P. Bergman, McDonnell Douglas.

NATO commissioned the Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development to conduct a study to determine ways of improving the mobility of NATO tactical aircraft. McDonnell Douglas introduced QFD to this study, and successfully facilitated the use of QFD to both decompose the problems associated with aircraft development and to generate and prioritize options for minimizing these problems. .

QFD And Information Technology: Designing The C31 System1 System

P.J. Hofman, CQE Air Academy Associates.

Designers of Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence Systems for the military consistently face the challenge of effectively applying the latest information technologies in systems that satisfy the user's needs as well as minimize overall life-cycle cost. This paper outlines how to use QFD to identify operational needs, evaluate different design options, highlight tradeoffs that should be optimized using Design of Experiments, and analyze the effect of certain failure modes on operational , design and functional requirements.

Automotive 1994

Making The Neon Fun To Drive

J.E. Fernandez, J.L. Chamberlin, E.G. Kramer, J.H. Broomall, H.A. Rori, and R.L. Begley, Chrysler Corporation.

The paper recounts the QFD and PDCA efforts utilized by Chrysler's Small Car Platform teams in the development of the "Fun to Drive" steering and suspension characteristics of the 1995 Neon. The project resulted a profitable small car program in North America. The QFD process brought all parties to become of a single mind and work in concert toward a specific goal - Fun to Drive, QFD.

Utilization Of QFD Principles For Defining The Functional Objectives Of Future Jeep And Dodge Truck Vehicles

TS. Zaydel, Chrysler Corporation.

This paper reports the application of QFD at Chrysler for deigning the functional objectives of future jeeps and trucks. It discusses an overview of the methodology in use at Jeep and Truck Engineering to provide the customer with a truck that is competitive as to application and price and still has the qualities that will influence the customer to purchase a Jeep or Dodge Truck over the competition. QFD principles served as the backbone for the process utilized to achieve this goal.

Using QFD To Improve Process Of Automotive Painting

C. Miller, Ford Motor Company.

The pilot application of QFD to improve an automotive painting process is reported. QFD was used to understand the relationships between what customers want in a paint job and process variables, to focus resources on the most important process variables for measurement and control. The report from the on-going project focuses on the process of performing QFD on a manufacturing process.

Automotive Electrical Distribution System Junction Box-Current QFD (CQFD)

D.L. Fluharty, AFL Automotive.

AFL conducted a three-phase concurrent QFD (CQFD) to support development of its Junction Box for Ford's 1996 PN-96 light truck program. Engineering and manufacturing CQFD team participants found that the process gave them insight they would not have had without the CQFD, including the focused attention on customer priorities, making trade-offs apparent, identifying several manufacturing opportunities and improving communication with key vendors.

Statistical Consistent Transformation Algorithm For Output Calculations Within The QFD Matrix

R. Vrancken, Siemens Automotive.

Using the statistical probability distribution of What-values and the matrix elements to calculate the importance ranking of Hows, an algorithm was developed by a team at the Central Quality Division of the Siemens Company in Munich Germany. The paper describes this algorithm and report an application at Siemens Automotive Division in Ontario Canada.

Computer & Electronics 1994

Multiple Matrices For A Marketing QFD

M. Ackerman, B. Buckland, Digital Equipment Corporation, Semiconductor Operations.

This study outlines a multiple matrix process used at a QFD facilitated marketing organization of DEC. Customers, business partners, and DEC sales and marketing personnel joined together to identify customer input into the quality, functionality, and deliverability of a hardware/software solution being delivered to a marketing segment. The study demonstrated how over a five day period, customers' input evolved into actions and resource requirements through the use of multiple QFD matrices.

Developing A New Generation '14' Color Set

S. Salminen, Nokia Home Electronics and I. Ferguson, Ian Ferguson Associates.

Nokia approached the development of a new television set using the logical discipline of QFD, to bring the new product to market on time with excellent customer acceptance. The paper describes how QFD was used by a multi-disciplined team, in both a process design role and in complementary system role.

Education 1994

Integrating The CustomerÕs Voice To Improve Educational Services Through QFD

M. Grimes, J. Malmberg, and G. LaBine, Lakeshore Technical College.

Lakeshore Technical College selected as a priority for 1992-93 school year to complete a comprehensive study, identify alternatives, and develop recommendations to address the school's facilities needs. QFD was chosen as the methodology to be used. The paper reports the progress made to date, the role of QFD in looking at a problem in an nontraditional way, and the unexpected outcomes that resulted.

General Industry 1994

QFD Outside North America- Current Practices in Europe, The Pacific Rim, South America, and Beyond

Glenn H. Mazur, QFD Institute.

This paper summarizes QFD activities outside the U.S. to this day (1994). Overseas organizations that have been central to QFD dissemination, application and research are featured. Recent QFD research being conducted in Japan is also introduced. The countries covered in this report include: Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, UK, Japan, Australia, Taiwan, and Brazil.

Linking QFD To Planning

M. L. Shillito, Eastman Kodak Company.

This paper proposes the PQFD (Planning QFD) model in which three planning matrices are used to bridge the gap between business plan and product design. It shows a planning matrix chain from company mission to the House of Quality.

QFD For Small Business - A Shortcut Through The 'Maze of Matrices'

G. Mazur, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.

This paper discusses why small businesses should embrace QFD; it describes the QFD tools and deployment steps for small businesses through customer satisfaction stories.

Prioritization Of Your Customer Wants Through The Use Of A Pre-planning Matrix

B. Yoder and J. Sosenko, EDS-Management Consulting Services.

This paper describes the pre-planning matrix methodology including selection of criteria, relating these criteria to customer wants, and methods for incorporating these criteria into the final composite importance rating. It also presents some of the methods for determining the influence each criteria has on the composite importance rating that are mathematically rigorous but provide more accurate input into further QFD work.

Quality Function Deployment In Concurrent Engineering

R Hales, International TechneGroup Inc.

This paper describes a QFD process which concurrently addresses the need of all stakeholders.

A Road Map For Gathering Data From Customers: Lessons From Experience

M. Liner, Raychem Corp., D. Daetz, HP, F. Laurentine, Sun Microsystems, R. Norman, TrailHead Learning Systems

Members of the San Francisco Bay Are User Group, a collaboration among local company representatives and consultants, share a QFD-based roadmap to successful, structured planning and decision-making. The collaborative paper outlines a six-step process for ensuring team data-gathering for a successful House of Quality as illustrated by their experiences.

How To Develop Correct and Significant Relationship In A QFD Matrix

M.J. Cooke, Electronic Data System, T.J. Zalewski, General Motors Corporation.

This paper describes how a facilitator can help a team successfully develop relationships by first aiding in the identification of the team's objective and then by asking specific questions that the paper discusses how different questions can influence the outcome of a matrix.

DFM2 Designing For Manufacturability and Marketability Designing For Manufacturability and Marketability

C. A. Kline, CIPM, QCS Limited.

This paper explains the development of customer and technical requirements into a product HOQ and the structure and evolution of the diverse teams throughout the concept, design and build phases.

Healthcare 1994

Applying QFD In Health Care Services - The Princeton Foot Clinic

J. Gibson, Baptist Health System.

The paper reports how the Clinic's task force consisting of clinicians, marketers and TQM staff was able to design a new service with built-in quality with the help of QFD and ensure clinicians to hear the voice of the customer above the high tech din of healthcare.

Designing The Voice Of The Customer Into A New Hospital Surgery Center

S. Macfarlane and K. Eager, The Quality Advisor, Inc.

This paper reports the progress made at a hospital by a cross-functional QFD team to design the surgery process for their new surgery center. The method, what worked and what did not, and recommendations for others in a similar situation and hospitals wanting to remain competitive.

Cardiac Arrest! QFD On The Heart And Soul Of A Medical Center

V. Alterescu, D. Newhart, and F. Tiedemann, John Muir Medical Center.

This is a case study involving three distinct QFD projects in separate clinical service areas: Cardiology, Oncology, and Rehabilitation, all undergoing radical market and governmental reform and competitor threats. Through the use of QFD, an interdisciplinary team was able to focus on developing services which are systematically tied to customer desires in each project. Had QFD not been done for these projects, the organization would have attempted a very different set of services built around the voice of single internal customer.

QFD In Health Care: Identifying Methods To Tailor QFD To A Service Industry. A Case Study At The University Of Michigan Medical Center

D. Erlich and E. Kratochwill, University of Michigan Medical Center.

The University of Michigan Medical Center piloted QFD in a new unit which consolidated several diagnostic procedures into one unit. The objective was to learn when QFD is mot appropriate for a hospital, and to stimulate service volume at the new unit. The paper discusses 1) UMMC QFD approach, 2) the difficulties experienced in applying QFD to healthcare, 3) the benefits derived from QFD, and 4) the ways to tailor QFD to healthcare and the service sector.

Human Resources 1994

Managing To Meet Employee Expectations

R. Woods, PHR, Dow Corning, USA.

This paper describes the application of quality tools including QFD to the task of understanding and meeting the employee expectations of the employer and company.

QFD - A Service Application In Human Resources

L. Harper, T. O'Driscoll, T. Yardley, and M. Zapata III.

The QFD process was used within the human resources department at North Carolina State University to perform existing process assessment. The research project led by the students provided a training tool for HOQ mechanics and an assessment tool for existing process. The exercise was effective in achieving buy-in for the QFD process from the HR executive management team.

Marketing 1994

Quality Elements To Consider In Deriving The Voice Of The Customer

Robert L. Brass, Development II.

The fabric of QFD is dependent upon the validity of its inputs - the Voice of the Customer. And yet, often a clear understanding of the potential customer is inadequately done. This paper discusses the importance of valid market research that is based on solid disciplines and experience combined with carefully assessed quality criteria.

Manufacturing 1994

QFD in existing Manufacturing Operations

Jim Folaron, 3M Company, Ultratec Tijuana, C.D. Ballon, AIA Raychem Corporation.

Some of the basic elements of QFD - such as cross-functional teams, listening to and translating the Voice of the Customer, setting targets for both technical measurements and customer opinions, and displaying the information in a concise, understandable manner - are used to understand and improve existing manufacturing operations including outgoing product quality as well as communications between departments. Using three application examples, this paper details specific activities that were conducted using these QFD elements to identify and prioritize continuous improvement opportunities.

We Design It With Our Ears

S. Blondin, S. Cancellieri, D. Grace, and S. Maynard, The Wiremold Company, Inc.

QFD provided the core competency for new product development at the leading manufacturer of wire management products. The paper reports how the QFD process reduced the new product development times by 75%, increased the ability to develop and market many more new products than before, produced higher quality products and increased sales and productivity.

Beyond The House Of Quality: Dynamic QFD

C. A diano, IBM and A.V. Roth, University of North Carolina.

The research presents a dynamic approach to QFD. Using feedback loops, this new approach incorporates updated customer satisfaction data and dynamically links evolving requirements directly back into relevant manufacturing and related process. Updated customer requirements then peg the key parameters in statistical process control charts. Includes an application case at Austin  IBM assembly plant.

The Power of QFD in Designing a Manufacturing Facility

C. Douglas Ballon, Raychem Corporation.

In this building project application, QFD served not only to facilitate gathering the business and technical requirements but also it helped establish inter-personal links that far exceeded expectations, building a broad consensus among a vast array of people from the factory floor workers to the company's top executives, architects, environmentalists, tax experts, industrial engineers, real estate brokers, material supplies and the paying customers. The report describes the process used in adapting QFD to the task of planning a manufacturing facility.

Medical Device 1994

Additional Applications Of QFD Matrices

A. Uber III and D. Gigler, Medrad Inc.

This paper reports two QFD applications at Medrad. The first was in relating parts to phenomena, and phenomena to phenomena in a complex electromechanical device. The second was to assist Medrad's senior managements in balancing the choices among various potential projects. The methodology helped show which project combinations could be most effective and illuminated the assumptions hidden in previous decision making process.

Service / Hospitality 1994

The Ritz-Carlton Housekeeping System: Service QFD Application

J.N. Kirk and A.F. Galanty, Ritz-Carlton, Dearborn.

The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company established the reliability of the housekeeping system at their Dearborn, MI property. Incorporating QFD methods of focusing on customer wants and needs, the House of Quality was built by a cross-functional team consisting of the Housekeeping, Laundry, Engineering and TQM group. Process identification techniques led to a surprising paradigm shift and resulted in a 65% cycle time reduction. The paper discusses the journey of the efforts and the reality of change in a customer- centered luxury hotel operation.

QFD Applied To An Engineering Service Delivery Proposal

G.D. Githens, MaxiComm Project Services.

This case study describes the design of a program management structure, based on a case of a proposal team responding to a Request for Proposal to provide environmental assessment services to the Army. The paper develops a QFD- based solution for design of a program organization structure and delivery system.

Software 1994

Implementing Software QFD On Large Projects

D.S. Newton and M.P. McDonald, Anderson Consulting.

This paper covers Andresen Consulting's recent success with software QFD in support of development project involving over 200 people.

Towards Better Object Oriented Software Designs With QFD

E.S. Zawacki, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and E llen D omb, GOAL/QPC.

QFD was used for the requirements and design analysis of a program in the Sequence Subsystem of the Advanced Multi Mission Operations Systems. QFD provided a methodical approach of capturing the voice of the customer across a diverse group of people and culture and played an important role in developing and tracing requirements. The paper describes how QFD focused the team's effort to produce an internal product for internal customers with diverse needs and how it was expanded for use with modern object oriented design software technology.

Telecommunication 1994

QFD Introduction To Motorola-A Study In Change Management

S. Bossserman and J. Stoner, Motorola.

This paper presents an overview of the experiences with the QFD process at Motorola since its introduction in 1980. As the QFD process may represent, which it did at Motorola, a major change in the way the development process is conducted; the paper also introduces several change management concepts. Described in detail is the first completed QFD activity at Motorola including a critique of the exercise from the perspective of the change management process.

Textile 1994

QFD Study On Brake Chamber Diaphragm

D.B. Wootton, Milliken Industries Ltd. and J. Newbold, Northern Rubber Company, Ltd.

The QFD process was worked through with a team consisting of personnel from Milliken and their customer Northern Rubber, to achieve full understanding of critical parameters and requirements of the materials as well as the final product, Air Brake Chamber diaphragms. The customer needs were established, the HOQ and other matrices were created up to part characteristics. Then a series of design of experiments were undertaken to optimize certain aspects of the process.

Tools and Methods 1994

Exceeding Customer Expectations

A. Gustafsson and N. Gustafsson, Linkoping University, Sweden.

The purpose of this research was to determine where QFD fits into the development process when working with innovations. It describes conjoint analysis, another tool in customer communication process, and how it can be combined with QFD to bring a result that exceeds customer expectations.

Set-Based Target Setting With Precise Rate Of Improvement Weights In QFD

J. Cristiano, C.C. White III, J.K. Liker, University of Michigan.

The research presents a process based on the QFD paradigm for determining a set of targets for quality planning and the quality characteristics of new product design.

Training 1994

Training Development Using QFD Curriculum Planning and Development

K. Richter, Cheveron USA and D. Lyman, International TechneGroup Inc.

The paper describes how QFD helps plan the details of course development, how to use it to address management's as well as employees' concerns about a new training.

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1993: The 5th Symposium on QFD (ISBN1-889477-05-2)
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Aerospace 1993

Concept Selection "A Process For Aerospace Design Decisions"

D. Hamilton, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace - East.

This paper presents a concept selection methodology which has been adapted from Stuart Pugh's concept selection process and applied for several design selection activities at the company.

Quality Function Deployment For Large Systems

E. B. Dean, NASA Langley Research Center.

This paper reports efforts to extend QFD to large scale systems within NASA. It links QFD to the system engineering process, the concurrent engineering process, the robust design process, and the project measurement process. The paper includes issues, project functions, and resource utilization as a part of a tightly linked project structure of high dimensionality which provides a high quality, low cost, and hence a competitive product. A pre-QFD matrix linking customers to customer desires and the decomposition and mapping of customer value as a means of project activity prioritization are described.

Use of QFD to Design a Simulation System

David L. Molnar, McDonnell Douglass Technologies Incorporated.

This paper describes the use of QFD to design a scenario generator for a system that electronically generates test targets for radars. The explicit primary goal was to use QFD as a tool to formally determine design requirements, and to facilitate team building among two groups of people who had different technical expertise and had not worked together before.

Automotive 1993

QFD Implementation at Chrysler - The First Seven Years

Robert J. Dika, Chrysler Corporation.

QFD is a simple and rational method to translate customer requirements into appropriate company technical requirements. It is also challenges the basic assumptions and traditions of the new product development systems in mature organizations. This paper presents the successes and struggles that Chrysler experienced in the integration of QFD into its development process. It shows QFD can be a strategy in the movement toward a TQM culture.

Utilization of QFD Principles In Chrysler's 1995 Small Car Program

Monte G. Myers, Chrysler Corporation.

Is it possible for an American automobile manufacturer to design and build an affordable, fun to drive small car and at the same time make a profit? Chrysler's Small Car Platform Team not only believes that this is possible, but is on the verge of proving it to the world. This team has continually challenged itself to "Dare To Be Different" in all aspects of the automobile design and development process in an effort to challenge this paradigm. This paper presents a case study of a large scale, total vehicle program.

Application of QFD to Launch of G.M. D-Car Air Bag

Leonard Pavia, Mexican Industries in Michigan, Inc.

As a tier two supplier for air bags, Mexican Industries does not interact with the end item customer to be involved in the first phase of QFD in determining the customers demands or wants and translating them into design requirements. However, the company does become actively involved in Phase Two "Part Deployment," Phase Three "Process Planning" and Phase Four "Production Planning." This paper explores the application of these three phases of QFD to a unique air bag designed to meet the customer demand of protecting not only the regular passenger but also the third person sitting in the front seat.

Volvo's E.C.C. (Environmental Concept Car) - QFD applied to a Future Concept Car

S. Voegele, Volvo Monitoring and Concept Center.

California's zero emission vehicle standard takes the desires of Volvo customers into consideration. The voice of the Volvo customer guided the entire concept development process. Using QFD as a concept development tool provided product requirements that were surprisingly different from initial expectations.

Strategic Management of (Standard) QFD

Keith B. Termaat, Ford Motor.

This paper describes a Ford proprietary QuickQFDTM process which relies on templates for wants, hows, and interactions to rapidly focus on no more than a couple of dozen each.

Aligning The Product Development Process Using Momentum(R) QFD: A Case Study In Letting The Voice Of The Customer Drive The Conceptualization Of a New Leak Detector

R. Norman, Leemak Training Systems, Inc.

Using a case study, this paper examines the phases a company went through to implement a process for concurrent product development. The first phase included Voice of the Customer alignment and tools, the second phase embodied the tools and techniques of QFD, and the third phase involved implementing the plan.

Computer & Electronics 1993

Optimizing QFD

G. Brubaker and P. Dunham, NCR Corporation.

This paper traces the introduction, optimization process, and training of QFD that took place and has been going on at NCR since the methodology's introduction to the company in 1989. Barriers to success, high performance QFD teams, and improvements made in market research brought by QFD are also discussed.

Successful Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Application at Digital Equipment Corporation - Unique Approaches and Applications of QFD to Address Business Needs

Michelle Ackerman, Bob Buckland, Digital Equipment Corporation.

DEC is applying QFD concepts to successfully improve internal business performance. Application of general QFD concepts to everyday business issues such as strategic planning, problem solving, and process development, in addition to more traditional software and hardware design and development, is shared.

Building Beyond the House of Quality: Concept Development

Donald E. Demallie, Unisys Corporation.

By eliminating guess work, concept development applies a disciplined approach to developing products that best satisfy customer requirements. This paper describes the concept development process and defines the relationships between the process, the house of quality, the parts deployment matrices, and the use of Pugh's concept selection process.

Eliminating Customer Dissatisfaction Using Negative Relationship Matrix

David H Green, Michael Cooke, Ian C. Wild, Electronic Data Systems Consulting Division.

This paper describes how to use customer feedback to make trade-off decisions so that product features are not offered at the expense of the important customer requirements. The methodology involves the use of a "Negative Relationship Matrix," which was derived from the QFD technique. The example used illustrates how an automotive company might provide the best possible fuel economy to its customers.

Beyond the House of Quality - Dynamic QFD

A diano, IBM Austin, Aleda V. Roth, Duke University.

Prerequisite to superior manufacturing is the ability to create defect-free products that are right for the customers over time. Incorporating the VOC into manufacturing is a multi-step process that poses the conundrum on how to link the VOC with the manufacturing processes efficiently and effectively. The problem is technically solved through "Dynamic QFD," which is designed to optimize manufacturing's capability to enhance product quality and solution timeliness.

Construction 1993

QFD: A Step-Change Planning Tool for Engineering and Construction Projects

Thomas H. Oswald, P.E., Quality Management Consultant.

This paper describes recent research into the use of QFD in the project management processes of the engineering and construction industry (E&C). It addresses the unique nature of large E&C projects as complex, customized packages in which joint planning, teamwork, and communication between customer and supplier are often as important as decisions regarding materials, systems, and other aspects of physical configuration.

Defense 1993

The Application of QFD to a National Security Issue

Greg A. Mann, Sandia National Laboratories.

On Aug. 4, 1990, the U.S. Senates passed a resolution requesting that Department of Defense investigate the feasibility of installing a post-launch destruct mechanism in all intercontinental and submarine-launched ballistic missiles deployed by the U.S. The feasibility investigation required the complex analysis of high level political, technical, environmental, operational, and security issues by a cross-functional team from DOE and DOD. Clarity and conciseness of the investigation results were of critical importance. This case study reports how modern quality tool, QFD, was used successfully.

QFD's Role in Advanced Tactical Aircraft Development

Suzanne Bergman, Mcdonnell Douglass Aerospace - East.

MacDonnell Douglas Aerospace - East has developed a process which uses QFD to aid in the understanding of potential world futures and their implications. Beginning with national goals, successive matrices capture the flow down of requirements through the prioritization of technologies to be applied to advanced tactical aircraft. This paper describes how National Goals can be linked with successive levels of military policy in order to illustrate the impact of these policies on future aircraft force structure requirements.

QFD for Military Technology Development Planning

Robert A. Fiske and William J. Adams, North American Aircraft Division, Rockwell International

The U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy crew escape communities are merging forces to develop requirements and technology programs intended to produce an advanced ejection seat for fighter pilots. With the participation of this joint-service team Rockwell International and LME executed House of Quality QFD for bridging the large set of conflicting escape system requirements to a technology development plan.

Using QFD to Establish and Improve Internal Customer Satisfaction

Linda K. Hoffman, FMC Corporation.

Effective use of information resource technologies is critical to the success of a product development program. In June 1992, a TQM team was assembled to establish the desired interface between Information Resources and development program at a FMC Corp. in MN. Using QFD, the team analyzed customer data obtained from experienced development program mangers.

An Application of QFD in Product Support Services

Jeff Litwin, Rockwell International. QFD for Military Technology Development Planning; Robert A. Fiske, Ph.D. and William J. Adams, Rockwell International, Walter R. Peck, LME, Inc.

This study looks at the application of QFD at Rockwell International's Collins Avionics & Communications Division (CACD) in the product support area. Management had developed a goal of an average turnaround time for the repair of customer equipment. This paper reports the initial application of QFD of this project that is still in progress.

Education 1993

QFD in Academia: Addressing the Customer Requirements in the Design of Engineering Curricula

Mahesh Krishnan, Cincinatti Bell Information Systems, Dr. Ali A. Housmand, University of Cincinati.

This paper describes a QFD model that can be used in the design of engineering curricula and how it can be implemented at a university setting. Specific success stories from the University of Cincinnati are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the model.

General Industry 1993

Using Fuzzy Set Theory To Derive An Overall Customer Satisfaction Index

G. Wasserman, Wayne State University, Agus Sugjianto, C. Wisry Sanrow, Quality Engineering Consultants and Contractors. Inc.

This paper details on how one may construct an overall customer satisfaction index based on the use of the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TPSIS) found in multi- attribute utility theory. The index is derived using competitive customer assessment information contained in the (A1) QFD planning matrix.

Measuring Improvements in Customer Satisfaction Through QFD

Jose A. Santos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil.

This research paper presents a unified methodology to measure product improvement, based on the concept of QFD.

Quality Function Deployment for Product and Service Improvement

Daniel Hanson, Weyerhaeuser Company.

This paper outlines the steps the company took and processes used to build the initial House of Quality matrix for existing product lines. It describes the barriers the team faced and how they handled, the breakthrough leanings that took place as a result of using QFD, and how this created an important link between external customers and the company's manufacturing facilities, as well as the diverse resources used, how QFD allowed the company to consolidate vast amounts of information into a few clear, concise pages of the most critical information, and the realization that QFD, used well, can create a significant competitive advantage.

QFD And Selecting Best Design

I. Ferguson, Ian Ferguson Associates.

This paper shows how QFD, particularly beyond the House of Quality, can reconcile these demands by generating eight sets of benchmarks that make a selection of Best Design one that will meet pre-set targets.

Quality Function Deployment - A Systems View

Dr. S. Nelle, Decision Management Australia, Byran Frew, Global Strategies.

This paper explores QFD from the perspective of General Systems Theory. This helps explain the major reasons for the failure of the process and QFD projects by the Australian consulting company.

The Strategic and Tactile Use of QFD in the product Planning and Development Process.

Kenneth L. Pia, Creative Research Services, Inc.

The benefits of QFD can be greatly enhanced if the strategic direction for product development is defined by the organization prior to the actual technical development of products by R&D or engineering. This paper details the process developed by this consulting firm to define and integrate strategic focus with tactical development of new products, using QFD as the platform.

Healthcare 1993

Applying QFD to Health Care Services: A case Study at the University of Michigan Medical Center

Deborah M. Elrich, PH.D. and Dennis J. Hertz, University of Michigan Medical Center.

The University of Michigan Medical Center piloted the 4-House approach in a new unit which consolidated several separated diagnostic procedures into one unit. The team is now completing the A-1 matrix. This paper discusses the Medical Center's approach, experiences learned, changes implemented, and the financial benefits from these changes.

Market Expansion Analysis Through QFD

J. A. Miller, Quality Processing Consulting, H. N. Tucker, Clintec Nutrition.

This paper presents the approach and findings from a House of Quality based analysis of how the market leading company could cause expansion of the entire clinical nutrition business worldwide.

Human Resources 1993

QFD for Improving Employee Morale

Gary Ekstrom, I B M Skill Dynamics.

This paper illustrates the use of QFD for improving the overall morale of employees within a company. The process used by the QFD Team is illustrated along with the top employee wants and needs and a prioritized list of characteristics.

Research & Development 1993

QFD Applied To R & D Activities

M. Soril and Z. Goifi, LaBein Centro de Investigacion Technologica Quality.

This paper reports the LaBein's efforts in application of the QFD to its R&D lines and services by a qualified Quality Improvement Team.

Safety 1993

Application of QFD to a "Soft" Issue, Jonh Crossley, The Clorox Company.

The Clorox Technical Center Health and Safety Team had a concern. But an unusual application of the QFD process quickly solved the problem. The paper describes how QFD was able to surface the cause of the H&S committee's problems and allow them to develop a recommendation, that in combination with other data from the analysis, resulted in a much improved system.

The Application of Quality Function Deployment In the Los Angeles River Rescue Task Force

Kathleen Butler, Robert Litwin, John Marzec, Rocketdyne, Rockwell International Tony Ennis, Los Angeles City Fire Department.

Each year, on the average, six people drown in the L.A. area flood control system. After a highly publicized tragedy in 1992, the City Council formed the River Rescue Task Force to develop new technology as may be necessary to assure rescue of people from the flood channels. QFD was used as a means to sort through the various concepts. Rocketdyne provided training and team facilitation. They have completed the House of Quality and the Pugh concept selection. Prototypes will be tested and recommendations made to the City council.

Service 1993

QFD for Service industries: From Voice Of Customer To Task Deployment

Glenn Mazur, Japan Business Consultants.

This paper discusses why the service industry should be embracing QFD to stay ahead of the game. It includes an excellent explanation of what the Kano model really means, what is QFD, how to identify key customers, how to implement QFD steps, what are the deployments of Service QFD and how QFD can be successfully implemented in small businesses. A 1985 case study of a translation business is used to illustrate the points, in which the use of QFD increased the revenue by 28.5% in the first year, 150% the second year, and 215% the third year.

Strategic Planning 1993

Does QFD Support Corporation's 35-Year Vision?

J Ternin ko, Responsible Man agement, Inc., USA.

This paper connects vision, TQM, design process and QFD, providing a road map for the practitioner. A service application for healthcare consultation is used to present the idea.

Team Building 1993

QFD and Personality Type - The Key to Team Energy and Effectiveness

Dilworth Lyman, International TechneGroup, Inc., Ken Richter, Chevron Chemical company.

This paper discusses the company's use of MBTI as an aid to improve the effectiveness of QFD teams. The paper shows how the MBTI was used as a tool to educate teams and improve the effectiveness of their QFD efforts.

Concurrent Engineering and the Entire QFD Process: One Year After Start-Up of a New Mill

D. M. Scheurell, Ph.D., Kimberly-Clark Corporation.

In the previous year's symposium, the company reported a paper that emphasized how their company went about forming the QFD team, the strategies to get around the barriers, results, and the transformation. This year's paper follows up on the program and postulates what they believe are the keys in obtaining all possible benefits from QFD.

Just Do it!

John Stitt and Cheryl York, Kimberly - Clark corporation.

This paper describes the obstacles to implementing QFD in an older Kimberly-Clark mill, the team dynamics used to overcome the obstacles, and the changes that took place within the QFD team and spread to other departments within the mill.

Supporting Technique to Improve Cycle Time When Using QFD

William J.Riordan, Howard Hohnson, Catherine Olin, Tom Salyers, GDE Systems Inc.

The QFD enhancement discussed in this paper is based on Delphi theory and aims at balancing individual efforts and team needs while minimizing the time needed to achieve mutual understanding and group solidarity. The paper describes the theoretical basis of the method, the integration of computer tools, the mechanics of the total process and how the enhancement was used in two QFD efforts (service and management related projects).

Telecommunication 1993

QFD Adaptation Under Changing Business Directions - An Application for Product Fulfillment Systems

Sherry M. Bosserman, Motorolla, Inc.

After four years since the introduction of QFD and 12 completed QFD projects, the QFD facilitators at Motorola began to see the patterns of successful QFD teams vs. unsuccessful ones. This paper reports detailed analysis of the various factors that were present in the past QFD efforts, and identifies a several key points that are critical to successfully bringing QFD into a technology-driven culture.

DMOQs: Measuring Yourself Against the Voice of the Customer

Patrick G. Brown, Dianne M. Thompson, AT&T Bell Laboratories.

This paper describes how the QFD approach has been used at AT&T to generate customer-focused metrics called "direct measures of quality," to help ensure that the aspects of the products and services that are most relevant to satisfying their customers' needs are measured.

Enhancing Customer Service Through QFD

Lori A Frantzve, Mahesh Krishnan, Cincinnati Bell information Systems.

This paper describes the use of QFD to improve customer service at Cincinnati Bell Information Systems. It looks at the process of handling external customer calls related to product/service information, on-line systems support and other customer and product needs. The paper also speaks to how QFD fits into the TQM cycle.

Utilities 1993

QFD at PG&E - Applying QFD To The residential services of Pacific Gas & Electric

A. Tessler, N. Wada, PG&E; R. Klein, Applied Marketing Science.

In 1992, PGE began using QFD. The pilot program went so well that the company expanded the program to other geographic divisions and customers. This paper reports the use of the Voice of Customer to link market research, SPC, continuous improvement teams, systems modeling, and information systems design and development, as well as the resulting benefits of using QFD.

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1992: The 4th Symposium on QFD (ISBN1-889477-04-4)
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Aerospace 1992

QFD and Aerospace: A Success Story

Thomas B Buell, ASI.

The principles of QFD were successfully applied at Rosemount Aerospace division in 1990-91, for a number of tasks in addition to product development and improvement. Case studies illustrate the many applications of QFD to the aerospace industry.

Use of QFD in Liquid Rocket Engine Power Cycle Selection

Arthur H. Weiss, Kethleen N. Butler, Rocketdyne.

The National Launch System is a joint NASA/Air Force program to develop a flexible and reliable launch capability. With the goal of reducing the current program costs without sacrificing reliability, the power cycle for this engine was selected by using QFD in new ways. The paper describes in details the use of the GOAL/QPC A-1 matrix, evaluation of the cycle selection criteria, the cycle values, a cross-check against the validity of the technique, evaluation of each cycle at the component level and the results of the three approaches and the team's recommendation.

Automotive 1992

The Utilization of QFD in the LH Powertrain Program

Glenn W. Czupinski, Don H. Kerska, Chrysler Corporation.

The LH was the first major program at Chrysler Corporation to use QFD beginning at the total vehicle level and then prioritizing critical system areas for more detailed study. As a result of the QFD study, four critical subsystems of the LH powertrain were identified needing extra design attention in order to ensure customer satisfaction. The paper discusses the challenge to the engineers and the major benefits of implementing QFD in this project.

Reducing Time to Market for New Products: QFD in Action

Kevin O'Brien, Ph.D. , Raychem Corporation.

This project illustrates how QFD can be used to significantly reduce the time to market required for the development of new products. Focusing on the automotive industry, the paper explains how this can be achieved using the matrix approach to analyze critical processes to determine critical process parameters and coupling the information with designed experiments and SPC to assist in improving the final product delivered to the customer.

Chemical 1992

QFD in the Design of a Pipeline Distribution Center.

James W. Cole, Ph.D., Process Management International, Gary Williams, Chevron Pipe Iine, Co.

This paper reports a case study describing an effort to blend the voices of the customer (four populations) and the voice of the engineer, while developing multiple houses to support the design of a pipe line distribution center. The design of a supervisory control and data acquisition pipeline distribution center posed unique problems that QFD appeared to address.

Listening to the Customer

John Crossley, The Clorox Company.

Understanding what the customer is really saying is not an easy task. Understanding how these customers' wants fit into the business needs present an even more difficult problem. But the success at translating the voice of the customer into actuality can be obtained. It requires developing a well defined process prior to any contact with the customer. Such a process is described in this paper.

QFD In Strategic Planning - A Study In Product Direction

D. Lyman, International TechneGroup, Inc., R. Beusinger, J. Keating, Chevron Chemical Company.

This paper examines a case study in which QFD was used to help a business unit to choose what products to develop.

Consumer Products 1992

Taking QFD through to the Production Planning Matrix: Putting the Customers on the Line

Diane M. Scheurell, Ph. D., Kimberly-Clark Corporation.

Most QFD efforts to date within the Divisions of the Kimberly-Clark have focused on the House of Quality. This paper discusses a program in which the company undertook the development of the 2/3 and 4th matrices for a new product and process.

Defense 1992

Use of Correlation Matrices in Quality Auditing

Alan B. Rothman, Department of Defense.

Traditional quality audits is based on a bean-out approach, where every deficiency stands alone, carrying equal weight, and contractor performance is judged solely on numbers of defects found, instead of a systemic view of the quality system. This paper proposes a new better way to do quality audit, in which correlation matrices were used to weigh individual findings against each area reviewed, to get a factor of relevance of deficiencies to the system. It also explains a method to track real-time audit performance and a 2-step auditing method under development.

Education 1992

Flowing Customer Demanded Quality from Service Planning to Service Design

Greta Stamm, Educational Services Institute, Inc.

This paper reports a case study that used QFD for the design of a guidance program at a large Midwestern high school.

Using the QFD A-1 Matrix to Identify Software Development Risks

Walter M. Lamia, Carnegie Mellon University.

The Risk Program at the Software Engineering Institute is investigating the problem of how to manage the technical risks inherent in the design and implementation of large software-dependent systems. While DoD policy mandates identifying major risks in programs, little guidance exists, particularly for the software components. In hope to develop systematic ways of identifying and resolving technical risk, an adaptation of the QFD A-1 matrix is being used. This paper describes simplifications made to standard QFD practice to facilitate its use when only a brief time is available to interact with program staff.

General Industry 1992

Gaining the Strategic Advantage: Implementing Proactive Quality Function Deployment

Satoshi Nakui, GOAL/QPC.

A former student of Dr. Yoji Akao and a TQM and QFD consultant to many Japanese companies, Satoshi Nakui shares in this paper the process of QFD and how to create matrices. It explains what is QFD, how to hear and interpret the Voice of the Customer and how to fine-tune the customers message (VOCT) and analyze them, together with the purpose and objectives of each phase.

Using Quality Function Deployment to Align Business Strategies and Business Processes with Customer Needs

Bill Barnard, NCR.

This paper explores the use of QFD to align a company's strategies with the business processes. The author's recommended process to be followed when involving QFD in accomplishing these objectives is explained.

Quality Function Buying

Vincent F. Elliott, Elliott Affiliates, Ltd.

Quality Funciton Buying (QFB) is a TQM, continuous improvement approach to meeting the needs of the customer through acquisition, rental, leasing and buying means. The paper describes the QFB which uses the structure of QFD. Integration of Quality Assurance Into Business Functions, Stuart Chalmers, KAIZEN Institute of America.

Using QFD to Prioritize Design Resources

Gary S. Wasserman, Wayne State University.

Designers need to know how to evaluate the costs and benefits associated with each design requirement, a planning model is introduced which makes use of the information content of the normalized QFD product planning matrix. This research paper shows the model is equivalent to an integer relaxation of the classical knapsack problem in operations research, thus a sample ranking of technical importance to effort required index is sufficient for deciding how to best allocate design resources.

QFD: A TQM Cornerstone For Quality Business Operations and Consolidation Factoring: A QFD Enhancement for Quality Business Decisions

A. L. Weisbrich, ENECO.

QFD, if used appropriately, is proposed to be a principal cornerstone in the broad-based pursuit of a TQM culture. This paper attempts to show why and how QFD can be used to improve business operations. A specific QFD improvement, the Consolidation Factor, will be introduced.

Customer Oriented Product Concepting: Beyond the House of Quality

M. Larry Shillito, Eastman Kodak Company.

QFD and the HOQ may not always be the appropriate technology for designing products. Customer Oriented Product Concepting was specifically developed for designing new or revolutionary products and services. This paper explains this method, the steps to use and matrices.

QFD, Program Management and Product Development process

Mark D. Gavoor, Colgate- Palmolive Company.

Both QFD and Program Management are methods for influencing and improving the Product Development Process. This paper compares and contrasts the two methods and explores how they may be integrated into the Product Development Process.

The Customer Process Table: Hearing Customer's Voices Even If They're Not Talking

Dale L. Nelson, dale Nelson Consulting.

The customer process table is a tool that can enhance the understanding of latent customer needs and lead to the development of differentiable products. This article describes the customer process table, how it works and how it can be used to enhance product development efforts.

Healthcare 1992

Hospital Marketing's Role in TQI: QFD

Duane Loller, Meadville Medical Center.

This paper examines the experience of the Meadville Medical Center with the development of a research system using QFD tools. The linkage of existing market research programs with a QFD matrix has yielded improved quality of customer research and improved acceptance of the output.

Multi-phase QFD Studies for Product and Services Development

Joe A. Miller, The Focus Consulting Group, Inc., Armando Bombino, Baxter Healthcare Corporation.

When QFD is implemented as a structured component of a customer satisfaction driven TQM process, it helps link the basic concepts of TQM into the product and service development processes. Training cross-functional teams in multiple phase applications of QFD enables critical decision and information needs to be identified earlier in the development cycle. This is demonstrated through a range of applications in this paper.

Medical Device 1992

How QFD Saved A Company - The Renaissance Spirometry System

O. Kaelin, P. Bennett, R. L. Klein, Applied Marketing Science, Inc.

The Boston Division of Puritan- Bennett, a maker of spiro-meters, faced a crisis in 1990. A competitor had introduced a new product priced at half of their product's current price. The company chose to fight and used QFD to develop a product that would meet this threat. This case study reports how a small company identified the Voice of the Customer, linked it to engineering characteristics, and then used that information to guide the development of the product that has saved the company.

Related Tools 1992

Synergy of Taguchi's Philosophy with Next Generation QFD

J Te rninko, Responsible Man agement, Inc., USA.

QFD has an improved understanding of market segmentation and the environment of application of the product or service. The technical evaluation in the house of quality is enhanced by Taguchi's loss function. With increasing levels of sophistication and refinements in understanding for QFD and Taguchi, it is time to take advantage of the synergy between these two systems of design.

Service 1992

QFD in Emergency Road Service

Dr. Adnan Aswad,k Diana l. Glowski, the University of Michigan - Dearborn, David J. Zink, Ford Motor Company.

The 4-House QFD was applied for the improvement of emergency road service for an organization. A case study illustrates the benefits of using the QFD in customer service.

QFD in the Service & Administrative Environment

Kurt H ofmeister, A merican supplier Institute.

Use of QFD IN Market Driven Education Service Study

Allen I. Sharkey, Thomas W. Suther, IBM corporation.

Software 1992

TQM and Software Engineering: A personal Perspective

Barbera Liston, Equal Partners.

This paper outlines some of the similarities in the quality efforts in the two industries, offers techniques used in software development to obtain and verify the voice of the customer, and then looks at additional best practice tools and techniques used in software development.

QFD as a Structured Design Tool for Software Development

Takami Kihara, charles E. Hutchinson, Dartmouth College.

This paper introduces the concept of QFD for software development utilizing QMIII (Quantification Method of Type III) to organize the complexity of requirements.

Team Building 1992

Quality Teamwork for Quality Deployment

Bruce L. Dockstader, Ph.D. The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company.

The model discussed here considers the organizational factors of team vision, mission, goals, roles, procedures, interpersonal influences and communications, as these factors contribute to team effectiveness. Also discussed are the five stages of team development: forming, norming, storming, performing, and ending.

Telecommunications 1992

QFD as as a Process Redesign Tool: An AT&T Case Study

Catherine (Kate) Mellina, AT&T Bell Laboratories.

This paper describes how an AT&T team used QFD in the redesign of a complex order fulfillment process. It explains 1) a set of QFD matrices useful for process applications, 2) how customer, benchmarking, and process data were collected and integrated into charts, and 3) lessons learned about applying QFD to the reengineering of a complex process.

Training 1992

Developing Company Specific QFD Training: A Customer Driven Approach

M. Liner, Raychem Corporation.

This paper outlines the process used at one company to develop a culture-sensitive QFD training system and to integrate QFD methods into product development. The results of research into success factors are presented, and the system under development is described.

QFD Training Program

Jude Heimel, AT& T Bell Laboratories.

One of the reasons for companies having difficulty implementing QFD can be attributed to lack of appropriate training support. AT&T Bell Laboratories Kelly Education and Training Center addressed this problem by providing a QFD training program using an integrated understanding of 1) TQM and organizational change, 2) adult learning models and instructional technology, 3) training management, and 4) QFD.

Tutorial 1992

QFD Primer - Excerpts From The QFD Course Manual

K. H ofmeister, B. Slabey, A merican supplier Institute. Voice Of the Customer Table: A Tutorial, G. Mazur, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd. To QFD or Not QFD (That Is The Question), S. F. Ungvari, ASI.

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1991: The 3rd Symposium on QFD  ( ISBN1-889477-03-6)
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Aerospace 1991

Using QFD with Dynamic Customer Requirements

J. B. ReVelle, Ph.D., Hughes Aircraft Company.

Recognizing that customer requirements are dynamic and cannot be controlled by a supplier, this paper uses the Taguchi inner-outer tableau to achieve a robust requirements matrix. A simulated case study has been created to demonstrate the methodology.

Automotive 1991

Overview of Quality Function Deployment

R. J. Dika, Chrysler Corporation.

This paper presents in a global way, a statement of what QFD is and a brief description of its universal elements, essential principles, and mechanics and definitions, with intent to set a common starting place for all Symposium participants.

Concept Development Through Teamwork - Working for Quality, Cost, Weight and Investment

Robert J. Dika and Ray L. Begley, Chrysler Corporation.

This paper resents a method for developing a product design and manufacturing process concept, before project final approval, which integrates several other methodologies and uses cross-functional teams. It is a method for completing a "paper" study which quickly considers many of the downstream stems of product development, which will be conducted in greater detail later.

Application of a QFD and Other Quality Tools to a Trunk System

Bill Biondo, General Motors.

This reports a General Motor's QFD application for producing a quality trunk system. The process began with the VOC, translation of the voice into product characteristics, and assessment of strength of the characteristic relationships. Competitive benchmarking was done to determine the priority of each characteristics and the level of complexity. The processes continued from system to component to process to production floor.

Computer 1991

Requirements Gathering Techniques Used with Quality Function Deployment

A. I. Sharkey, IBM Corporation.

Presentation slides on four basic steps in gathering wants and needs, cross-functional management system, VOC process, account selection guidelines, customer input gathering and analysis, etc.

General Industry 1991

Getting the Voice of the Customer

Glenn H. Mazur, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.

Presentation slides. What is the Voice of the Customer?; Who is the customer?; When to get VOC?; How to use VOC data?; and VOC Table samples.

The Hows

R. F. H ales, International TechneGroup.

Presentation slides. The House of Quality or Product Planning Matrix; Purpose; Guidelines; Types; Sources; Problems; Results.

Total Quality Management and Quality Function Deployment

S. Ungvari, A merican supplier Institute.

This paper discusses 1) What is TQM?; 2) What is QFD?; 3) Dynamic TQM; and 4) QFD and the TQM Tools.

Comprehensive QFD System

Satoshi "Cha" Nakui GOAL/QPC.

Comprehensive QFD system is detailed in this paper by one of the students who studied directly under Dr. Yoji Akao, co-founder of QFD, in Japan. It includes Voice of Customer Tables, how to enter data, what is demanded quality, rules, demanded quality deployment, function analysis, function deployment, failure mode analysis, reliability deployment, concept deployment, capability deployment, plus many example charts and matrices.

Building QFD into a Comprehensive Product Development System for Competitive Advantage

C. Nicholson, Oregon Cutting systems Division - Blount Inc.

The international construction and manufacturing company describes how they began QFD to bring customer focus to their improvement activities and shift to "market in" approach from "product out" thinking which they traditionally held. The strategic product development system resulted, achieving measurable improvement in their product development and market share.

Filling in the Blanks: QFD & Technical Optimization

J. Quinlan, ITEQ International, Ltd.

The work of Dr. Taguchi provides technical concepts and processes by which the real benefits of QFD and concurrent engineering can be realized. Using a toy suction cup dart gun as an example, the paper explains how this can be done.

Structured vs. Non-Structured Approach to QFD

W. H. Slabey, A merican supplier Institute.

Presentation slides on the key customer demands, myths about QFD, and A merican supplier Institute approach to QFD vs. GOAL/QPC approach to QFD.

Using the QFD Concept in Non-Product Related Application

R. G. Day, Total Quality Management, Inc.

People who have used the QFD concept for product planning frequently find that the QFD matrix concept has natural extensions to other planning applications. This article explores a few such examples of the use of the QFD concept in non-product related applications based on the experience of several organizations.

Concurrent Engineering a Harris - Lessons Learned

J. A. Lugo, W. J. Vitaliano, J. S. Lutz, Harris Corporation.

During the 1990 fiscal year, the Concurrent Engineering Team of the Corporate Engineering Productivity Group at Harris set an ambitious goal: the creation of a concurrent engineering training course, including QFD methodology, and the initiation of two concurrent engineering pilot projects. The goal was successfully met and exceeded, and seven pilot projects were started. This article summarizes Harris experiences and future plans.

Voice of the Customer Analysis & Other Recent QFD Technology

G. Mazur, Japan Business Consultants, Ltd.

This paper details what is the Voice of the Customer, why it is important, and how it is gathered and analyzed. Other technologies and applications included in this paper are Kansei Engineering, QFD for regulatory and environmental compliance, QFD for chemical processes, and QFD for service industries.

QFD Assumes You have an Imagination

J Te rninko, Responsible Man agement, Inc., USA.

A skilled QFD practitioner is not restricted by ASI's four-phase approach or GOAL's matrix of matrices. The examples from actual cases which are presented in this paper use neither approach. They do use Taguchi's loss function in the house of quality for technical evaluation. Product mix is selected by simultaneously looking at market segments and needs.

Enhancements to the QFD Process

E. H. Vannoy, P.E., Product Engineering & Reliability Engineering Consultant.

Presentation slides on QFD study, product planning matrix, paired comparison matrix, QFD matrices.

Who Needs QFD User Groups?

R. Norman, R. F. H ales, D. Lyman, International TechneGroup.

This paper discusses the concept, same examples of how user groups have been started successfully and the implications for QFD's future.

Amplifying the Voice of The Customer

M. C. Lyons, J. A. Alexander, Impact Group, Inc.

This paper focuses on the use of Voice of the Customer information within the more traditional "telling and selling" role of marketing and sales. It gives concrete examples of how marketing and sales assess broad customer expectations in a simple "report card," and then utilize that information to correctly "position" in the customer's mind the value of the products and services that the selling organization already delivers.

Manufacturing 1991

QFD Study of CATV Connector

M. Liner, Raychem Corporation.

This paper describes a product development team's use of QFD on an indoor coaxial cable connector for the cable television market. Both the 4- Phase and the Matrix of Matrices approaches are used. A summary of the team's evaluation outlines advantages, key problems, and suggestions for future work with QFD. Significantly higher customer satisfaction at product introduction resulted from using QFD.

Medical Device 1991

The Strategic Approach to Market Research

D. A. Ginder, Mech Group, Inc.; N. Donforio, G.E. Medical Systems.

This paper discusses a new approach to market research using QFD to focus research activities on Key Customers and how GE Medical applied the tool. This approach enables Marketing to perform research which is more meaningful, economically focusing resources on customers with the greatest potential opportunity to meet the company's long and short term goals. This strategic approach to is replacing the more traditional market research approaches such as conjoint analysis, which are more of a statistical shotgun.

Software 1991

Quality Function Deployment to Gather Customer Requirements for Products that Support Software Engineering Improvement

J. Moseley, J. Worley, Texas Instruments.

During late 1990s and early 1991, the QFD process was used to gather customer requirements for products to support software engineering process improvements for Texas Instruments. These requirements were compressed into twenty customer need categories and were given the priorities as received from the customer using the QFD process. These needs were further developed into twenty-two measurable characteristics, which were then analyzed and five key characteristics were identified for further development. The QFD process provided an effective means of gathering and categorizing customer requirements for software engineering process improvement products.

Electronic Exchange of QFD Data

R. F. H ales, D. Lyman, R. Norman, International TechneGroup.

The time has come for vendors of QFD software to establish a common exchange format. This paper discusses the requirements for this type of standard.

Generalized Approach to Adapting QFD for Software

A. I. Sharkey, IBM Corporation.

Presentation slides on QFD approach used in IBM, QFD software translations, QFD software samples charts, market segmentation and QFD deployment, and implementation at IBM.

Training 1991

The need for Quality Function Deployment Quality Function Deployment

K. H ofmeister, A merican supplier Institute.

This is an excerpts from the A merican supplier Institute's 3-day workshop on their 4-phase (4-House) QFD model

Taguchi Method 1991

QFD & Taguchi for Design with Environmental Elegance

Dr. C. M. Overby, Ohio University.

This paper illustrates how Taguchi and QFD ides, ideas about "defect prevention by design" have parallels in concepts of "pollution prevention and waste minimization by design," and how these "quality" ideas might help us move toward environmental elegance in design for the entire life cycle in engineering practice and education.

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1990: The 2nd Symposium on QFD (ISBN1-889477-02-8)
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Aerospace 1990

Lessons Learned from a QFD on the Space Transportation Engine

D. Lecuyer, Pratt & Whitney.

A QFD of the Space Transportation Engine (STE) was conducted to assist in defining the requirements for the main liquid propulsion engine for the Advanced Launch system. This paper describes the QFD processes that took place, the resulting outcome, several situations that arose during the course of the QFD project that adversely affected the QFD, how they were successfully addressed, and specific recommendations and lessons learned to assist in future QFD efforts.

Automotive 1990

Overview of Quality Function Deployment

R. J. Dika, Chrysler Corporation.

This paper presents in a global way, a statement of what QFD is and a brief description of its universal elements, essential principles, and mechanics and definitions, with intent to set a common starting place for all Symposium participants.

Steering Column Concept Selection for Low Cost and Weight

R. L. Begley, Chrysler Corporation.

Most engineers approach the "Design" sequence in fashions which they have learned while on the job. Very little formal training exists at the university level which translates directly into how an engineer might choose the appropriate design for the task at hand. Additionally, very few corporations offer courses instructing the engineering community on what techniques should be used to select an appropriate design and then to improve it. Through an example of the selection process for a steering column assembly experience at Chrysler, this paper demonstrates the application of QFD, Competitive Benchmarking and Value Engineering as very powerful tools for the engineer to use in the design process.

Ford - GE Blower Motor Project

H. Wadke and A. Palumbo, Ford Motor Corporation; M. Cicala, A merican supplier Institute.

Presentation slides on an application of QFD in the Ford-GE blower motor project.

Quality Improvement - Start at the Beginning with QFD

W. H. Selecman, Ernst & Young.

This article discusses the rationale and impact of changing the approach for attaining quality improvement to employ QFD to focus more heavily on refining activities that must be done precisely. A series of lessons learned in instructing and applying QFD to automotive products are included.

Chemical 1990

Quality Function Deployment and Total Quality Excellence

M. G. Gavoor, Colgate- Palmolive Company.

Colgate-Palmolive is in the process of adopting a TQM philosophy and style based on the teachings of Dr. Deming.This paper reflects our efforts to date (June 1990) on the structure of TQE, the primary tools and techniques associated with it and the coordination of those tools and techniques. Special attention is paid to QFD within TQE.

Defense 1990

QFD on a Defense Contract

P. L. Bersbach and P. R. Wahl, GM - Hughs Electronics.

This paper describes a real life application of QFD to a factory of the future in the Aerospace and Defense industry that is high rate low cost microwave hybrid manufacturing facility. More a diary than a historical account, this paper describes an application that is still in progress (the completion of the project is planned for 1992), the resources required by QFD, the QFD tools and matrices needed, and in in-depth look into the obstacles encountered, including ignorance toward QFD and the approaches used to educate all.

Energy & Utilities 1990

Quality Function Deployment at FPL

J. L. Webb, Florida Power and Light, Inc.; W. C. Hayes, Qualtec, Inc.

This paper discusses both the macro and micro application of QFD at FPL. In service industries, it has always been difficult to identify customer requirements and then to evaluate the organization's performance in meeting them. FPL has successfully used QFD at a higher level to identify customer requirements and basic quality elements. These were then deployed through all levels of the organization into each job function. Through customer segmentation, FPL has also begun to identify more specific applications of QFD in service, software, and product development. The first example provided here describes the "Customer Needs Table of Tables" and its use in deploying their Corporate Quality Elements. The second example shows how QFD was used to redesign the way in which the company responds to customer requests at their regional phone centers.

General Industry 1990

Applying QFD in Various Industries

K. H ofmeister, A merican supplier Institute.

Fanatic QFD User

J T e rninko, Responsible Management, Inc., USA.

This paper identifies many tools that responsible practitioners should use artistically to make QFD and quality initiatives effective. These include Taguchi, Control Charts, Group Dynamics, Fishbone Diagram, Process Decision Program Chart, and Fault Tree Analysis. Use of the tools is the core of this presentation.

Introducing QFD into an Organization

R. Stoy and D. McDonald, Beckman Industries, Inc.; James Naughton, Expert Knowledge Systems.

This paper describes one practical way of establishing a supportive environment for the successful integration of the QFD process to the product life cycle. A concurrent QFD pilot project involving a management support team identified two organizational needs crucial for the first development team's effort and incorporation of QFD for any further projects. The first need was to satisfy the product development core team. Responses were formulated to these needs through the QFD methodology and many benefits were derived in the process.

What Do I Put in a QFD Chart?

J. Cavanagh, A merican supplier Institute.

A four- page paper describing what data should be put in the QFD charts.

Management Aids for Summarizing House of Quality Information

G. S. Wasserman, Wayne State University.

Management must be able to extract the vital information which is contained within the QFD product planning matrices, even though a single matrix may be composed of tens of thousands of cells. This paper proposes a useful graphical design that aids easy identification of the voice of customer priorities and conflicts. Hypothetical products case studies are used.

New Directions for QFD - Goal/QPC Research Committee 1989 Research Report

B. King and J. Moran, GOAL/QPC.

This paper presents one of the TQM planning tools - QFD. QFD provides activities that bring together all required disciplines to work and plan the product or service development efforts in a highly disciplined, communicative, and effective manner. QFD's focus on the voice of the customer contributes to a company's ability to attain quality levels that provide a cost competitive position in the world marketplace.

Deployment Normalization

D. Lyman, International TechneGroup, Inc.

This paper is an investigation of the mathematical processes contained in the QFD matrix. It suggests modifications to the formulas that correct the distortions and are consistent with the matrix logic. It also proposes extensions that help you gain further insight while keeping the information consistent.

Marketing Research 1990

New Technologies for Listening to the Voice of the Customer

R. L. Klein, Applied Marketing Systems, Inc.

This paper focuses on the most recent advances in the technology and methodology to identify and structure the Voice of the Customer for use in QFD and other quality improvement programs. These advances represent a fusion of U.S. marketing science technology with the Japanese methodology resulting in a procedure particularly appropriate for use by American industry.

A Pilgrimage from the House of Quality to the Customer Cathedral

M. Lyons and J. Alexander, Impact Group.

Presentation on the what and how of a "Customer Success SystemTM" process, i.e. how a company should use QFD to organize sales, technical service and marketing and then link that with the internal functions of design, manufacturing and delivery in order to install a customer success-oriented interface.

Manufacturing 1990

Manufacturing Strategic Plan - QFD & The Winchester Gear Transfer

D. Calloway and B. Chadwell, Rockwell International.

This paper demonstrates how QFD was used to help implement a World Class Manufacturing Program at a large manufacturing plant. The goal was established to achieve world class manufacturing, with the objective to streamline plant processes and reduce wasted effort. The paper provides insight about applying QFD to optimize the movement and relocation of a complete gear manufacturing process from one Rockwell facility to another, demonstrating the usefulness of QFD as a planning and prevention tool for improving an old design and manufacturing system.

QFD Planning Approach to a Supplier Quality Program

R. J. Pratt, ARCAD Corporation; G. J. Marcel, Rockwell International.

The purpose of this project was to develop a process which could be used to establish and maintain an improved Supplier Quality Assurance (SQA) system. To date no SQA program bas been developed based on the QFD planning method, and the author proposes just that in this paper.

Medical Device 1990

Incorporating Market Research into the Product Development Process

T. Domke, GE Medial Systems.

QFD provided the structure and customer focus in this product development project at GE Medical systems. The product development team gained its strength through a cross-functional development team, structured design process, and marketing research. Customer involvement from the onset of the program contributed to the success of the project. The paper also describes Simultaneous Multi-Attribute Level Trade Off (SIMALTO) that the GE team selected. Presentation slides.

Software 1990

QFD Integrated with Software Engineering

M. A. Betts, Hewlett-Packard.

This paper is written to encourage people to apply QFD to software projects. The case presented here is Hewlett Packard's experience applying QFD to a Corporate Quality Information System project, PRIMA. The major point discussed are: the QFD domain, software engineering situation, life cycle, and the PRIMA project experiences.

Taguchi Method 1990

QFD and Taguchi Methods

J. Quinlan, A merican supplier Institute.

Presentation slides on QFD vs. Taguchi Methods.

Training 1990

QFD: A Basic Primer - Excerpts from the Implementation Manual for the Three Day QFD Workshop

W. R. Slabey, A merican supplier Institute.

The need for Quality Function Deployment Quality Function Deployment

K. H ofmeister, A merican supplier Institute.

This is an excerpts from the ASI's 3-day workshop based on their 4-Phase (4-House) QFD method.

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1989: The 1st Symposium on QFD  (ISBN1-889477-01-X)
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Automotive 1989

Vehicle Wiring QFD

D. Carter, K. Hasenstab and S. Schafer, Electro-Wire; R. Uroda, Ford B&AGO.

The QFD core team consisting of design engineering, advanced systems engineering, product engineering, and QA from Electro-Wire and Ford reports their pilot QFD efforts. The project involved application of QFD in the design, manufacturing, and assembly of the wiring harness for an entire vehicle. The paper reports the steps taken and the resulting benefits.

Pre-Planning a Total Product: The Key to Success in Complex Product Development Situations

C. W. Kurowski, Chrysler Motors.

Utilization of QFD sometimes resulted in a very long customer requirements list. This adds complexity to product planning and development of large and complex products. Using QFD as a tool to help systemize the total process plan, a macro "Pre-Planning QFD" has been developed to organize data to determine the two or three important product characteristics that will enhance the product for increased customer satisfaction. This paper explains this new concept and matrix.

QFD: A Systems Approach to Brake Design

T. J. Bodell and R. A. Russell, Kelsey- Hayes Company.

Kelsey-Hayes began using the concepts of the QFD process in 1986 and had done a couple of studies on developed components. A new vehicle program at one of the Big Threes directed them into the next study, which turned out to be a complete systems QFD study encompassing new products as well as all of the KH products. The paper reports their progress to date in the on-going initiatives.

Front End Accessory Drive Design - A QFD Approach

R. Ahoor, Ford/Engine Product and Manufacturing Engineering.

The front end accessory drive belt drive system was chosen for a QFD study, because of the extremely challenging performance and warranty objectives. This paper reports the benefits of the QFD experience specifically as it applied to the modular engine program, including the relationship of QFD to the use of engineering tools such as simulation program, design of experiments and cross-functional team approach for system design.

SMC Truck Hood

M. Gavoor and G. Marcel, Rockwell International; Greg MacIver, Ashland Chemical.

This paper provides an insight to Rockwell International Automotive Operation's philosophy and approach to QFD highlighting the SMC Truck Hood project. This project illustrates the organizational commitment necessary to successfully implement QFD. How QFD and existing product development procedures were integrated is explained.

QFD: A Road Map for Survival in the 1990's

D. Makie, Masland Industries.

Why can the Japanese introduce a new vehicle in half the time and with superior quality than the U.S. auto companies? A large part of the answer seemed to be QFD. For this reason, Masland employed QFD as a strategy for survival in the 1990's. This case study, the company's second QFD efforts, involved the development of a full floor carpet system. This reports explains how QFD principles were put to work in a step- by-step fashion and what they have learned through the process.

General Industry 1989

Developing Tree Structures that Include Qualitative Characteristics

J. Naughton, Expert Knowledge Systems.

QFD and the Seven Management Tools offer means to acquire, organize, and use the essential information needed to satisfy customer quality requirements. This paper describes an overall approach to techniques for the inclusion of qualitative information in QFD projects.

Lessons Learned in Applying QFD

J. Moran, Polaroid Corporation.

This paper reviews four QFD projects: A new product in development, a new product in the final design stages, a program to specify system design requirements to a vendor, and internal review of a human resource development program to deliver training. It then reports the lessons learned in applying QFD to these diverse programs.

Useful Enhancements to the QFD Techniques

H. Vannoy, AC Rochester.

This paper reports a QFD case study involving a catalytic converter. The steps of the QFD process taken are illustrated.

QFD: A Flexible Management Tool

R. C. Blaine, D. W. Burden and N.E. Morrell, The Budd Company.

This paper provides examples of the flexibility of QFD as a management tool beyond the new product design concept. Facts based on experience and opinion resulting from observations focus on why a technique with the powerful potential of QFD is often difficult to initiate, and frequently impossible to sustain through a satisfactory conclusion. It deals with recognizing a valuable concept and making it work within your environment.

Medical Device 1989

QFD in the Development of a New Medical Device

J. R. Rodriguez-Soria, Ernst & Whinney.

This QFD case study covers the development of a new medical device, the first QFD application at this healthcare manufacturer. The case presents the unique aspects of connecting the Voice of the Customers, a customer model and building of the House of Quality.

Telecommunication 1989

QFD: A Systematic Approach to Product Definition

D. Thompson, AT&T Bell Laboratories.

This paper provides a brief background of QFD in Japan and the U.S., and focuses on the company's experience with QFD through three case studies involving a network reconfiguration software system, network monitoring software for internal AT&T use, and a large system composed of software and hardware used in telephone central offices.

Computer & Software 1989

Implementing QFD at TI: What Worked and What Didn't

R. Porter, Texas Instruments.

This report traces the steps Texas Instruments took to implement QFD across the Materials & Controls Group worldwide. It highlights the "management process" with emphasis on the role of the Management Quality Improvement Team, training, revision to the Design Control Procedure, and synergism across the organization. Case studies from operations in Europe, Asia, and the United States are referenced to highlight the major specific outcome of the QFD project.

Thrill Your Customer

K. Shaikh, Hewlett-Packard.

Although Hewlett Packard has not succeeded in completely merging QFD with the software development process, they have found QFD to be valuable in developing a highly complicated software product. This case study shares how the QFD process was modified to meet the need of the software development team. It describes the benefits and advantages of using QFD for software products at Hewlett Packard. Difficulties and ways to alleviate barriers as well as some intangible fringe benefits to the organization resulting from use of this process is also discussed.

Tutorial on the Principles of Quality Function Deployment 1989

A Tutorial on the Principles ofQFD: Excerpts from the Implementation Manual for the Three Day QFD Workshop

K. H ofmeister and W. R. Slabey, A merican supplier Institute.

Experts from the (4-Phase QFD method) Implementation Manual for the Three Day QFD Workshop by the A merican supplier Institute

Affordable Innovation - Using the Full Power of QFD's Matrix of Matrices to Get Timely Cost Effective, Customer-Focused, Innovative Designs

Bok King, GOAL/QPC.

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