Presentations on September 9–10, 2016
Click the paper titles to open or close the detailed abstracts.
(Note: Free symposium admission for the attendees of these QFD courses.)
( random order; subject to revisions )
Using AHP In QFD – The Impact of the New ISO 16355 Standard
Abstract: Traditional Quality Function Deployment (QFD) uses ordinal weights—percentages of a total—to describe priorities for customer’s needs and technical solution approaches. Since AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) works with profiles—vectors of unit length one—it is possible to add, subtract and compare profiles, while weights yield wrong results when added, subtracted or compared. When using AHP for profiling customer’s needs for use with QFD, this is an incompatibility that might lead to failures. The new ISO standard 16335 introduces ratio scales and profiles in QFD. Moreover, the method proposed by Saaty to calculate priority profiles in AHP is also applicable to modern QFD. The new ISO 16355 also suggests ratio scales within QFD matrices instead of the traditional ordinal correlation strength indicators. AHP is used in many steps in QFD, but this paper will focus primarily on the House of Quality matrix.
Data Source / Methods: AHP, Gemba, New Lanchester, NPS
Abstract: The mission of the Power Generation Division at NextEra Energy is to deliver certainty of operations and maintenance for all it's non-nuclear assets. Exceeding organizational goals are driven by the implementation of quality oriented continuous improvement opportunities that add value. This paper demonstrates the application of Hoshin Kanri - Policy (Priority) Deployment from idea generation to project selection in the central organization of the PGD business unit. Leveraging a systematic method across all fleets in the business unit make it easier to share best practices across the enterprise, provide line-of-sight from high value projects through to business unit strategies, and promote consistency in selecting projects with maximum value in meeting customer needs.
A Method of Software Requirements Analysis Considering the Requirements Volatility from the Risk Management Point of View
Abstract:To accelerate the development life cycle of a software product, the incremental development life cycle models such as spiral and agile model have been introduced. However, due to the immaturity of the specification during the incremental cycle, the number of changes of requirements is big. Even with conventional waterfall model, there is no way to avoid the change of requirements to occur after the phase of requirements. So, rather than try to perform requirements analysis to obtain perfect coverage of requirements, it is easier to just accept the potential of requirements change as a risk. In this paper, we describe our study about a method of software requirements analysis while considering the volatility of requirements as a risk. We use Quality Function Deployment as the base method of requirements analysis, while we apply R-Map as a tool for risk assessment. By using the method, we can have a better understanding of requirements volatility from the risk management point of view. We use actual software changes tracking record to obtain the risk of changing, and we evaluate our proposed method by applying the method to a real software product as our case studies.
TQM Implementation in China via Practicing QFD
Abstract: Although total quality management (TQM) was introduced to China in the 1980s, it is only recently that Chinese manufacturers began recognizing its importance. To be qualified as a vendor, whether in international B2B or domestic B2C business, Chinese manufacturers so far have resorted to sales-focused strategies that worked well in the rapid growth markets but are now proving to be insufficient as they now face increasing competition from emerging countries that offer even cheaper labor and declining global economy that affects the purchasing powers of their overseas customers. Added to this are Chinese organizational culture and Chinese way of implementing TQM that are not helping. This paper begins by introducing the problems associated with Chinese introduction of TQM and their traditional implementation approach. It then explains why introducing QFD is an essential business strategy for Chinese manufacturers in their pursuit for sustainable success in the global market.
Early Requirements Validation by Means of Virtual Prototypes for the QFD Use
Abstract: As part of the product development process (PDP), the features and characteristics of a product are determined in the early stages. The focus of these is based on the demands of customers and stakeholders because the product features can be derived from the customer requirements. Within the scope of requirements determination, various methods are used to generate the conscious customers’ requirements. Often, hidden (unconscious) customer requirements are not considered, resulting in the developed product differing from the real customer requirements with any deviations leading to lower product quality. Thus, the aim is to develop a front-end in which the customer's requirements can be validated in the concept phase (for example, eye tracking by camera). For this purpose, a procedure should be developed in which the actual customer interest (conscious and unconscious) can be identified or illustrated. Using three dimensional virtual reality (3D VR) early on allows developers to visually illustrate or to simulate product features and functions. The virtual prototypes generated could ascertain actual areas of interest of the customer in connection with an eye tracking system. Then, the unstructured data must be further processed and placed in a contextual analysis. Integrated into the QFD, it is possible to restructure the requirements at an early stage. Based on clear requirement structures, the results of this proactive quality measure may be better product quality.
QFD for Testing the Internet of Things
Abstract: Today, we embark on a new quest: the Internet of Things (IoT). It has been understood that agile methods are the only ones capable of handling the complexity of developing software against unknown customer requirements. What has paved the way for agile was understanding that the aim of software development is not only well-engineered code but understanding the needs of the customer and translating them into a language that machines can understand. For traditional civil engineers, this looks frightening. For QFD professionals, it sounds familiar.
Sustainability Function Deployment (QFD) Applied to Increase Environmental and Social Economic Value Added of Products, Service, and Projects
Abstract: Products and services have the objective to increase quality of life, but in some cases the result is a negative impact to the community (environment, society, economy, and health). This can be especially true in rural communities. Using QFD to integrate socioeconomic life cycle assessment (SLCA) in five projects will demonstrate up to three times the economic value added.
A Critical Analysis of Software QFD Publications
Abstract: Software QFD represents a variant of QFD for developing software products. First applications took place in the late 1970s in Japan and in the late 1980s in the US. More extensive use of Software QFD started in the 1990s and since then many companies (e.g. IBM, Motorola, SAP and Siemens) have reported on the success of their Software QFD implementations. So not surprisingly, a literature review conducted by the authors in 2015 found a total of 176 publications which directly or indirectly address the application of QFD within software development.
Using QFD to Design a Smart School Quality Factor Model: Integrating QFD into IoT (IoT)
Abstract: The internet of things (IoT) is the integration of things via the internet. This integration is done by having sensors on the things to collect data, and then these data are shared via the internet, enabling the things to work together and making the whole much greater than individual things -- when it is done right. But how can all these things work together effectively? This question is similar to the question which QFD always asks: What is the voice of the customer (VOC) regarding the important qualities of a product? When product engineers or producers respect the VOC, then the value, including the effectiveness, of the product is improved.
A Study on Sustainable KAIZEN based on Job Function Deployment Methodology and Methods Engineering at On-site Logistics and Processes
Abstract: Today, manufacturing companies need to be able to quickly change in order to adapt to global markets. In order to survive in this corporate-dominated environment, manufacturing companies must shorten production time and make use of the most effective set of on-site logistics processes to keep up the pace of production and maintain profit margins at a satisfactory growth rate.
This study introduces an original academic approach by examining the combined use of job function deployment and methods engineering for enhancement of on-site logistics and production processes to produce consecutive positive results, i.e. “KAIZEN.” The objective is an overall betterment of the processes at their production sites.
QFD and the Systems Engineering Way of Working
This presentation will discuss the integration of Modern Blitz QFD® and Pathfinder, a Systems Engineering (SE) approach developed at Rolls Royce. In addition to the modern QFD tools such as Projects Goals Table, Customer Segment Table, Affinity Diagram, Hierarchy Diagram, AHP, and Maximum Value Table, the flow of Pathfinder tools such as Stakeholder Map / Context and Boundary Diagrams and Viewpoint Analysis. The paper will support the ISO 196355 standard to reference good practice and evidence of usage in industry.
Soft Systems Method Integration With Sustainable Energy Systems Development Using ISO 16355
The Soft Systems Method was developed by Peter Checkland's team at Lancaster University in the 1970s to help analyse complex situations or 'soft problems' where the problem for which a solution is sought is not clearly understood, or for which differences of opinion exist as to the precise nature of the problem. Such a 'soft problem' exists in the development of sustainable (economic and environmental) energy systems.
Keeping Up with Global Best Practice: ISO 16355
— Applications of Statistical and Related Methods to New Technology and Product Development Process
In 2009, the QFD Institute was asked to convene an ISO Working Group to write an international standard for QFD. The biggest concern was how to standardize a method that works best when custom-tailored to the new product development (NPD) process of an organization, as well as for its specific products and customers. The International Council for QFD liaised its members with others from Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, and India to form a group of experts to write the new ISO 16355 series standard for quality function deployment. In June 2016, the five QFD parts were approved for publication with the remaining three parts not far behind. This paper and presentation will outline the structure of the eight parts, how they build on older QFD models from the 1970s and 80s, and what you need to do to become a leader and facilitator of this Modern QFD standard.
50th Anniversary Panel: History of QFD in Asia, Americas, and Europe
2016 marks the 50th anniversary of QFD since the first case study publication half a century ago in Japan. A new important milestone has been achieved recently: The establishment of ISO 16355 for QFD, approved in May 2016 ISO meeting in London, UK. Recognizing these historic moments, this International Symposium on QFD in Boise has assembled the pioneers of QFD from Japan, US, Germany, EU, and China, to share their experience and perspectives on global spread of QFD.
Using The New Kano Model: How To Really Excite Your Customers
Kano model is well known for its intriguing diagram of 'exciting quality' vs. 'expected quality.' However, it is one of the most misunderstood concept. As one of a few who actually examined the original 1984 research by Noriaki Kano, Ph.D., et.al, the author points out some serious deficiencies in the original Kano model as well as the one commonly practiced in America and elsewhere. He then presents the New Kano Model that offers superior insights on what needs to be done to really build excitements in new product development.