The 22nd International Symposium on QFD
Presentations on September 9–10, 2016
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(Note: Free symposium admission for the attendees of these QFD courses.)
( random order; subject to revisions )
Using AHP In QFD – The Impact of the New ISO 16355 Standard

Speaker: Thomas Fehlmann, Ph.D., Senior Consultant, Euro Project Office AG, Switzerland, et.al.(image: QFD & ISO)

Abstract: Traditional Quality Function Deployment (QFD) uses ordinal weights—percentages of a total—to describe priorities for customer’s needs and technical solution approaches. Since AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) works with profiles—vectors of unit length one—it is possible to add, subtract and compare profiles, while weights yield wrong results when added, subtracted or compared. When using AHP for profiling customer’s needs for use with QFD, this is an incompatibility that might lead to failures. The new ISO standard 16335 introduces ratio scales and profiles in QFD. Moreover, the method proposed by Saaty to calculate priority profiles in AHP is also applicable to modern QFD. The new ISO 16355 also suggests ratio scales within QFD matrices instead of the traditional ordinal correlation strength indicators. AHP is used in many steps in QFD, but this paper will focus primarily on the House of Quality matrix.



Data Source / Methods: AHP, Gemba, New Lanchester, NPS

Co-authors: Glenn Mazur, QFD Red Belt® and QFD Architekt, QFD Institute, USA


The Hoshin Express — From Idea to Project

Speaker: Dennis Frankos, QFD Black Belt®, Staff Engineer/Quality Deployment Leader, NextEraEnergy Inc. Power Generation Division, USA

(image - NextEra Energy)Abstract: The mission of the Power Generation Division at NextEra Energy is to deliver certainty of operations and maintenance for all it's non-nuclear assets. Exceeding organizational goals are driven by the implementation of quality oriented continuous improvement opportunities that add value. This paper demonstrates the application of Hoshin Kanri - Policy (Priority) Deployment from idea generation to project selection in the central organization of the PGD business unit. Leveraging a systematic method across all fleets in the business unit make it easier to share best practices across the enterprise, provide line-of-sight from high value projects through to business unit strategies, and promote consistency in selecting projects with maximum value in meeting customer needs.

Data Source / Methods: Hoshin planning, Analytic Hierarchy Process applied, idea generation and project selection.

Co-authors: Members of the NEE QAPPGD Organization; Myra Gardiner, General Manager PGD Central Maintenacne, NextEra Energy Inc., Glenn Mazur, QFD Instiute, USA


A Method of Software Requirements Analysis Considering the Requirements Volatility from the Risk Management Point of View

Speaker: Yunarso Anang, Ph.D. candidate, University of Yamanashi, Japan/Indonesia, et.al.(R-map, source: FEMA)

Abstract:To accelerate the development life cycle of a software product, the incremental development life cycle models such as spiral and agile model have been introduced. However, due to the immaturity of the specification during the incremental cycle, the number of changes of requirements is big. Even with conventional waterfall model, there is no way to avoid the change of requirements to occur after the phase of requirements. So, rather than try to perform requirements analysis to obtain perfect coverage of requirements, it is easier to just accept the potential of requirements change as a risk. In this paper, we describe our study about a method of software requirements analysis while considering the volatility of requirements as a risk. We use Quality Function Deployment as the base method of requirements analysis, while we apply R-Map as a tool for risk assessment. By using the method, we can have a better understanding of requirements volatility from the risk management point of view. We use actual software changes tracking record to obtain the risk of changing, and we evaluate our proposed method by applying the method to a real software product as our case studies.

Data Source / Methods: Data used to simulate the method is taken from two different real software products. Main analysis tools used are QFD and R-Map, a tool for plotting risk in risk management.

Co-authors: Masakazu Takahashi, Professor at University of Yamanashi, Japan; Yoshimichi Watanabe, Associate Professor at University of Yamanashi, Japan


TQM Implementation in China via Practicing QFD

(photo: Chinese LED mfg)Speaker: Catherine Y. P. Chan, Ph.D., QFD Black Belt®, President, Hong Kong Quality Function Deployment Association, Hong Kong PRC, et.al.

Abstract: Although total quality management (TQM) was introduced to China in the 1980s, it is only recently that Chinese manufacturers began recognizing its importance. To be qualified as a vendor, whether in international B2B or domestic B2C business, Chinese manufacturers so far have resorted to sales-focused strategies that worked well in the rapid growth markets but are now proving to be insufficient as they now face increasing competition from emerging countries that offer even cheaper labor and declining global economy that affects the purchasing powers of their overseas customers. Added to this are Chinese organizational culture and Chinese way of implementing TQM that are not helping. This paper begins by introducing the problems associated with Chinese introduction of TQM and their traditional implementation approach. It then explains why introducing QFD is an essential business strategy for Chinese manufacturers in their pursuit for sustainable success in the global market.

Co-authors: Prof. Gail Taylor, the Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong


Early Requirements Validation by Means of Virtual Prototypes for the QFD Use

Speaker: Christian Esser, Research Assistant, Unversität Kassel, Germany, et.al.

Abstract: As part of the product development process (PDP), the features and characteristics of a product are determined in the early stages. The focus of these is based on the demands of customers and stakeholders because the product features can be derived from the customer requirements. Within the scope of requirements determination, various methods are used to generate the conscious customers’ requirements. Often, hidden (unconscious) customer requirements are not considered, resulting in the developed product differing from the real customer requirements with any deviations leading to lower product quality. Thus, the aim is to develop a front-end in which the customer's requirements can be validated in the concept phase (for example, eye tracking by camera). For this purpose, a procedure should be developed in which the actual customer interest (conscious and unconscious) can be identified or illustrated. Using three dimensional virtual reality (3D VR) early on allows developers to visually illustrate or to simulate product features and functions. The virtual prototypes generated could ascertain actual areas of interest of the customer in connection with an eye tracking system. Then, the unstructured data must be further processed and placed in a contextual analysis. Integrated into the QFD, it is possible to restructure the requirements at an early stage. Based on clear requirement structures, the results of this proactive quality measure may be better product quality. (eye tracking example - video)

Approach: At the beginning of this paper, the importance of understanding requirements is shown as part of proactive quality management, and the need for early requirements validation is explained. Furthermore, a procedure for validation of customer requirements in stereoscopic virtual space is demonstrated. Then, whether the perception of virtual prototypes can be equated with physical prototypes is discussed. The necessity and characteristics of a comparative study to investigate the perceptions of both 3D VR and reality is described, along with test objectives, test design, and test methods.

Value of paper: A conceptual method that allows improving product quality by a validation of the requirements in the early stages of product development is described. The urgency of this study, which examines the differences of perception in 3D VR and reality, is explained. Exposure of product characteristics to virtual prototypes in order to validate requirements is made.

Keywords: Customer requirements, product development, QFD, virtual prototype, 3D virtual reality

Data Source / Methods: Eye Tracking based requirements analysis

Co-authors: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Robert Refflinghaus, University of Kassel, Department Quality- and Prozessmanagement, Germany


QFD for Testing the Internet of Things

Speaker: Thomas Fehlmann, Senior Researcher, Euro Project Office AG, Switzerland

Abstract: Today, we embark on a new quest: the Internet of Things (IoT). It has been understood that agile methods are the only ones capable of handling the complexity of developing software against unknown customer requirements. What has paved the way for agile was understanding that the aim of software development is not only well-engineered code but understanding the needs of the customer and translating them into a language that machines can understand. For traditional civil engineers, this looks frightening. For QFD professionals, it sounds familiar.

(IoT illustration)An even more challenging quest is to master the multitude of intelligent things around us. Things talk to each other, exchange information affecting behavior without direct human control. It is already common experience that seats on transportation systems are blocked out because some internal intelligent network decided they were out of service. Medicine cabinets deny access because the software cannot authenticate the doctor. Even autonomous vehicles can crash because different manufacturers built them. How can we avoid intelligent things shutting us out of our own homes, locking the refrigerator because we ate too much, or reveal to our loved ones the birthday gift we secretly prepared? This is especially difficult if constraints and operating environments are unknown in advance.

The theory of Combinatory Logic, part of constructive mathematics, has a model that is very useful when dealing with unknown cause-and-effect relationships. It is called Combinatory Algebra and can be seen as a generalization of QFD as it deals with infinite cause-and-effect relationships. From a finite set of Ishikawa Diagrams, it is quite possible to build a finite QFD matrix, but with combinatory algebra, it is just as possible to construct infinite rule sets from an infinite number of cause-and-effect diagrams that resemble QFD matrices of infinite size. Combinatory algebra lays the theoretical foundations for managing complexity in the IoT. Examples of such complexity is the safety of autonomous vehicles or making IoT helpful and enjoyable for humans. Just as Euclidean geometry from the University of Alexandria made the transition from agricultural to urban living possible around 300 BC, now is the time to use combinatory algebra for the transition from industrial production to value creation by intelligent things. This paper explains the model of combinatory logics and how QFD implements such a model in practice. It explains how to model IoT collections as combinatory algebras and discusses new approaches based on theory for predicting strange and unforeseeable conditions and how the “things” behave under them. A case study in IoT testing how QFD could evolve in the near future is introduced.

Data Source / Methods: Combinatory Logic


Sustainability Function Deployment (QFD) Applied to Increase Environmental and Social Economic Value Added of Products, Service, and Projects

Speaker: Juan Manuel García, Founder, Leanradarorg and Corporate EHS Sustainability, Baxter Corporation, USA(illustration - sustainability QFD)

Abstract: Products and services have the objective to increase quality of life, but in some cases the result is a negative impact to the community (environment, society, economy, and health). This can be especially true in rural communities. Using QFD to integrate socioeconomic life cycle assessment (SLCA) in five projects will demonstrate up to three times the economic value added.

Data Source / Methods: For three projects, information was collected directly in the communities, using focus groups, surveys and investigation. SLCA was then used to understand impact. Finally, critical functions of the projects, products, and services were determined by applying QFD and SFD. Results were examined for social economic return on investment (SEROI) in order to identify functions and characteristics that can maximize economic value added to existing or future projects, products, or services.


A Critical Analysis of Software QFD Publications

Speaker: Georg Herzwurm, Prof. Dr., University Stuttgart, Germany, et.al.

Abstract: Software QFD represents a variant of QFD for developing software products. First applications took place in the late 1970s in Japan and in the late 1980s in the US. More extensive use of Software QFD started in the 1990s and since then many companies (e.g. IBM, Motorola, SAP and Siemens) have reported on the success of their Software QFD implementations. So not surprisingly, a literature review conducted by the authors in 2015 found a total of 176 publications which directly or indirectly address the application of QFD within software development.

In this paper these publications are analyzed with respect to several viewpoints: (a) corresponding type of Software QFD model used i.e. traditional comprehensive, focused or dynamic Software QFD; (b) reported case study and involved application domain e.g. business software vs. technical software; (c) form of embedding QFD into the software development process and its relation to project management activities; (d) essential methodological characteristics like the involved stakeholders, the form of teamwork, the rigor of separating needs and solutions, the accuracy of prioritization, and used QFD elements like customer voice tables, affinity diagrams or quality matrices; (e) and the consideration of multidisciplinarity issues as well as the possibility of reacting to changing working environments caused by digitalization and industry 4.0. Based on the findings of this analysis we will give an outlook on the future use of QFD in software development.

Co-authors: Sixten Schockert and Tobias Tauterat, University Stuttgart, Germany


Using QFD to Design a Smart School Quality Factor Model: Integrating QFD into IoT (IoT)

(graphic: school / HoQ)Speaker: Austin Melton, Ph.D., Professor, Kent State University Industry Computer Science and Mathematical Sciences, USA, et. al.

Abstract: The internet of things (IoT) is the integration of things via the internet. This integration is done by having sensors on the things to collect data, and then these data are shared via the internet, enabling the things to work together and making the whole much greater than individual things -- when it is done right. But how can all these things work together effectively? This question is similar to the question which QFD always asks: What is the voice of the customer (VOC) regarding the important qualities of a product? When product engineers or producers respect the VOC, then the value, including the effectiveness, of the product is improved.

The immediate goal of this research is to show how QFD can be used in the developing smart schools. The long-range goals are to make and support the claim that by integrating QFD into IoT, the value and usefulness of IoT will improve and to note that in IoT the VOC is often the voice of a large and very diverse group. Thus, in IoT the way the VOC is heard, understood, and applied may require a modification of QFD procedures.

Co-authors: Amany Alnahdi, Ph.D. candidate, Kent State University, USA


A Study on Sustainable KAIZEN based on Job Function Deployment Methodology and Methods Engineering at On-site Logistics and Processes

Speaker: Masamitsu Kiuchi, Associate Professor, Josai University Faculty of Business Administration, Japan, et.al.

(diagram)Abstract: Today, manufacturing companies need to be able to quickly change in order to adapt to global markets. In order to survive in this corporate-dominated environment, manufacturing companies must shorten production time and make use of the most effective set of on-site logistics processes to keep up the pace of production and maintain profit margins at a satisfactory growth rate. This study introduces an original academic approach by examining the combined use of job function deployment and methods engineering for enhancement of on-site logistics and production processes to produce consecutive positive results, i.e. “KAIZEN.” The objective is an overall betterment of the processes at their production sites.

Job function deployment is a method that helps transform customer needs into engineering attributes for a service or product. Methods engineering is a domain of industrial engineering that deals with human integration and manufacturing engineering. These two methodologies used together, can help companies achieve “KAIZEN” as understood in the context of Japanese corporate culture and philosophy, a success that even non-Japanese companies can emulate.

Data Source / Methods: Texts were selected according to their relevance to this study, taking into consideration both technical level and general understanding of the subejects explored in the following works: Zandin, Kjell et al. Maynard’s Industrial Engineering Handbook, which provides an extensive general explanation about the main areas present in this study, as well as Tadashi Yoshizawa et al's Quality Function Deployment for Sustainable Growth and Job Function Deployment and Methods Engineering.

Co-authors:Kazushi Nagai, associate professor, Tamagawa University, Japan / leader of QFD research group, the Union of Japanese scientists Engineers (JUSE).


QFD and the Systems Engineering Way of Working

Speaker: Steve Dimelow, QFD Black Belt®, Systems Engineering Specialist, Rolls-Royce plc., United Kingdom

(QFD and SE Way of Working)This presentation will discuss the integration of Modern Blitz QFD® and Pathfinder, a Systems Engineering (SE) approach developed at Rolls Royce. In addition to the modern QFD tools such as Projects Goals Table, Customer Segment Table, Affinity Diagram, Hierarchy Diagram, AHP, and Maximum Value Table, the flow of Pathfinder tools such as Stakeholder Map / Context and Boundary Diagrams and Viewpoint Analysis. The paper will support the ISO 196355 standard to reference good practice and evidence of usage in industry.

 



Soft Systems Method Integration With Sustainable Energy Systems Development Using ISO 16355

Speaker: Dr. Kim Stansfield, QFD Black Belt®, Senior Teaching Fellow, Warwick University WMG, United Kingdom

Soft Systems Method Integration With Sustainable Energy Systems Development Using ISO 16355The Soft Systems Method was developed by Peter Checkland's team at Lancaster University in the 1970s to help analyse complex situations or 'soft problems' where the problem for which a solution is sought is not clearly understood, or for which differences of opinion exist as to the precise nature of the problem. Such a 'soft problem' exists in the development of sustainable (economic and environmental) energy systems.

This paper will illustrate how modern QFD methods described in the ‘ISO 16355 standard for QFD’ have been used in the UK's Energy Technologies Institute to help in the analysis of the ‘soft problem’ of transition to low-CO2 energy systems. Illustrations will be given on how these methods can be used to establish system specifications and designs.

Co-authors: Dr. Mike Colechin, Stakeholder Manager, Energy Technologies Institute, United Kingdom; Glenn H. Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Executive Director, QFD Institute, USA.


Keeping Up with Global Best Practice: ISO 16355
— Applications of Statistical and Related Methods to New Technology and Product Development Process

Speaker: Glenn H. Mazur, QFD Red Belt®, Executive Director, QFD Institute

ISO 16355 - Keeping Up with Global Best PracticeIn 2009, the QFD Institute was asked to convene an ISO Working Group to write an international standard for QFD. The biggest concern was how to standardize a method that works best when custom-tailored to the new product development (NPD) process of an organization, as well as for its specific products and customers. The International Council for QFD liaised its members with others from Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, and India to form a group of experts to write the new ISO 16355 series standard for quality function deployment. In June 2016, the five QFD parts were approved for publication with the remaining three parts not far behind. This paper and presentation will outline the structure of the eight parts, how they build on older QFD models from the 1970s and 80s, and what you need to do to become a leader and facilitator of this Modern QFD standard.

ISO 16355 is already attracting the attention of quality organizations, Six Sigma, and Lean professionals. In addition to its overall guidance on new product development, the eight parts of the standard cover the gamut from strategic hoshin planning, competitiveness, project management, on-site customer visits, survey design, prioritization, quality assurance, innovation, cost management, reliability, optimization, supplier management, make and build, commercialization, support, retirement, and flow to next generation products. ISO 16355 includes case studies and examples from product, service, information technology, and process industries from all over the world. The standard includes upgrades to both the classical House of Quality and well as the more streamlined Blitz QFD®.

NPD professionals will want to master these global best practices so they can engage their organizations in surging ahead of their competitors in creating the truly great products their customers demand.


50th Anniversary Panel: History of QFD in Asia, Americas, and Europe

Global QFD - Historical Perspectives2016 marks the 50th anniversary of QFD since the first case study publication half a century ago in Japan. A new important milestone has been achieved recently: The establishment of ISO 16355 for QFD, approved in May 2016 ISO meeting in London, UK. Recognizing these historic moments, this International Symposium on QFD in Boise has assembled the pioneers of QFD from Japan, US, Germany, EU, and China, to share their experience and perspectives on global spread of QFD.
  • Hisakazu Shindo, Ph.D., professor emeritus of University of Yamanashi in Japan, is the earliest colleague of Dr. Akao and witness to the concept development. He is going to speak on the origins of Japanese QFD.
  • Bob King, founder and retired CEO of GOAL/QPC, is one of the first Americans to introduce QFD to the English-language world. He will speak on its beginnings and growth in the U.S.
  • Harold Ross, who held various management positions at General Motors Vehicle Development and Systems Engineering, will speak on the introduction of QFD at GM some thirty years ago.
  • Georg Herzwurm, Ph.D., professor of Business Administration and Information Systems at the University of Stuttgart in Germany and a founder of QFD-Institut Deutschland, will speak on dissemination of QFD in Germany and EU regions.
  • Catherine Chan, Ph.D., founder and president of Hong Kong QFD Association, will share the spread of QFD in Chinese language countries.
  • Glenn Mazur, executive director of QFD Institute and convenor of ISO 16355, will speak on the history of modern advancements, the new ISO and future prospect.

Using The New Kano Model: How To Really Excite Your Customers

Speaker: Harold M. Ross, (ret.) General Motors / QFD Institute, USA.

(new kano model by Harold Ross)Kano model is well known for its intriguing diagram of 'exciting quality' vs. 'expected quality.' However, it is one of the most misunderstood concept. As one of a few who actually examined the original 1984 research by Noriaki Kano, Ph.D., et.al, the author points out some serious deficiencies in the original Kano model as well as the one commonly practiced in America and elsewhere. He then presents the New Kano Model that offers superior insights on what needs to be done to really build excitements in new product development.




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